K096 Anthem

deutsch K096 Anthem

K96 Anthem

(The dove descending breaks the air) for chorus a cappella – Anthem (Furchtbar reißt der Flug der Taube) für Chor a cappella – Anthem (La colombe fend l'air) pour chœur a cappella – Anthem (La colomba che discende terriblemente rompe l'aria) per coro misto a cappella

Source: In 1943 Thomas Stearns Eliot published his volume of poetry entitled ‘ The Four Quartets (German 1948: Die vier Quartette) . The last of these is entitled ‘ Little Gidding '* . The two stanzas of seven lines of verse each which Strawinsky set to music correspond to the second-last section and depict - darkly, as is typical of T. S. Eliot - that humankind may only atone for its errors and be redeemed ‘from fire by fire.’

* Little Gidding is a parish and small village located in the Huntingdonshire district of Cambridgeshire (England) near Sawtry.

Construction: Anthem is a one-movement unaccompanied four-part choir work in a tone row = serial mode with counted bars (43 bars).

Row: d1-f#1-e1-g1-a1-b b1-c2-b1-c#2-d#2-g#1-e#1*.

* The row notated in the manuscript has an F1 with a natural sign instead of an E1 sharp.

Corrections / Errata

Choral score 96-2

Page 1

1.) bar 3, Alto: crescendo sign has to be added between >breaks< and >the< [quaver h / crotchet a].

2.) bar 4, Alto: >With< has to be marked with an accent (>).

3.) bar 5, Soprano: >air< has to be marked with an accent (>).

4.) bar 10, Alto: >de< has to be marked with an accent (>).

5.) bar 11, Alto: >The one< have to be marked with accents (>) [one = accent on >o<].

6.) bar 12, Alto: >dis-charge from< have to be marked with accents (>) [charge = accent on >a<].

7.) bar 16, Soprano: >or< has to be marked with an accent (>).

8.) bar 16, Alto: >ly< has to be marked with an accent (>).

9.) bar 17, Bass: >on-ly or else des-< have to be marked with accents (>)[else = accent on 1st >e<].

Page 2

1.) bar 16, Alto: >-ly< has to be marked with an accent (>).

2.) bar 16, Soprano: >or< has to be marked with an accent (>).

Page 3

1.) bar 25, Alto: the 3. word >fire< has to be marked with an accent (>).

2.) bar 25, Tenor: >by< has to be marked with an accent (>).

3.) bar 25, Tenor: at the end of the bar has to be added a break.

4.) bar 26, Tenor: >Who< has to be marked with an accent (>).

5.) bar 26, Bass: the words and syllabs >Who then de-vised< have to be marked with an staccato dot and a tenuto line (–) above (= detached or non legato).

6.) bar 27, Bass: [only] >tor< has to be marked with an staccato dot and a tenuto line (–) above (= detached or non legato); >sub. pp< has to be added to the word >Love<.

7.) bar 28, Bass: >is< has to be marked with an staccato dot and a tenuto line (–) above (= detached or non legato)

8.) bar 29, Tenor: the 3rd syllab >–mi-< has to be marked with an accent (>).

9.) bar 29, Bass: >un-< and >–mi-< have to be marked with accents (>).

10.) bar 29: between systems below >Name< has to be added a decrescendo-sign with left curly bracket.

11.) bar 30, Tenor: >Be-< has to be marked with an staccato dot and a tenuto line (–) above (= detached or non legato).

12.) bar 30, Bass: the words and syllabs >Be-< and >hands that wove< have to be marked with an staccato dot and a tenuto line (–) above (= detached or non legato).

13.) bar 31, [only] Bass: the words and syllabs >The in-to-le-< have to be marked with an staccato dot and a tenuto line (–) above (= detached or non legato).

14.) bar 32, Tenor: >of< and >flame< have to be marked with accents (>); a decrescendo-sign after >flame< has to be added.

15.) bar 32, Bass: >shirt< and > flame< have to be marked with accents (>);the word >shirt< should be linked by a phrasing mark to the subsequent word >of<; after >flame<a decrescendo-sign has to be added.

16.) bar 33, between systems Tenor-Bass: a pp-sign without curly bracket should be added under the final word in the text, >flame<, from the preceding bar, bar 32.

17.) bar 34, Soprano: before >which< breath mark shoud be added; >which< has to be marked with an accent (>).

18.) bar 34, Alto: >-man< has to be marked with an accent (>).

Page 4

1.) bar 36, Alto: before >re-move< a breath mark has to be added; >re-< has to be marked with an accent (>).

2.) bar 36, Tenor: 2. note above syllab >can-< crotchet a1 instead of quaver a1.

3.) bar 42, [only] Tenor: >fire< has to be marked with an accent (>).

4.) bar 42, [only] Bass: >fire< has to be marked with an accent (>).

5.) bar 43, [only] Alto: >fire< has to be marked with an accent (>).

6.) bar 43, Tenor: >or< has to be marked with an accent (>).

Style: The compositional process rests mainly on syllabic elements and the music gives the impression of calm, in keeping with the occasion. Two-tone melismas are reserved for certain words or word-elements in all parts that serve to be underlined or characterised specially: Thus des-cen-ding, ter-ror, des-pair, re-move or live. Moreover, there is a four-tone melisma in the altos on breaks (bar 3) and a five-tone melisma in air (bar 4) as well as in the tenor line (bar 41) a three-tone one on con-sumed. To amplify the structure of the work, words are repeated several times, such as lies in the soprano line (bar 19) which human pow’r, also in the sopranos (bars 34 - 36), only in the altos (bar 15) to be redeemed from fire in the bass line (bar 23 - 24). The rhythmic pattern of the compostion demands that the word power appears as pow’r throughout (sopranos bars 33 and 36, altos bar 35, tenors and basses bar 36).

Dedication: > Dedicated to T. S. Eliot<.

Duration: between 2' 10" and 3' 37".

Date of origin: completed 2nd January 1962.

First performance: 19th February 1962 in Los Angeles in the series of the Monday Evening Concerts conducted by Robert Craft.

Remarks: In 1960 Strawinsky was requested to compose a hymn for the new English hymn book prepared by the Cambridge University Press. T. S. Eliot himself suggested the respective passage from his work. Obviously, Strawinsky’s choir piece was not ultimately included. The first appearance in print of ‘Anthem’ was in 1962 in the appendix to the English version of his book ‘Expositions and Developments’ published by Faber & Faber, a publishing house T.S. Eliot was director of for many years. The original form of an antiphon - the word ‘anthem’ is a derivation of it - remains intact in its rudiments. Strawinsky’s understanding of this form in accordance with recent developments was that of an extra-liturgical hymn, not, however, purely as a hymn of praise (e. g. a national anthem).

Versions: Anthem first appeared in print as part of the English edition of the B-appendix of the book ‘Expositions and Developments’, which in 1962 appeared at both Doubleday in New York and Faber & Faber in London (with Strawinsky featuring as co-author, although it was probably wholly written by Robert Craft). It is found only in the English edition not in the American one. Within the same year the composition was published independently by Boosey & Hawkes by permission of Faber & Faber. Strawinsky received his complimentary copy on 29th April 1962. The contract with Boosey & Hawkes was concluded on 29th March 1962.

Historical recording: Toronto 29th April 1962, Festival Singers of Toronto under the direction of Igor Strawinsky.

CD edition: XI-2/11.

Autograph: The autograph was handed over to Eliot. Nothing is known of its whereabouts today.

Copyright: 1962 by Boosey & Hawkes Corporation in New York; Text copyright 1943 by T. S. Eliot.

Editions

a) Overview

96-1 1962 ChoSc; E; [preprint] Faber & Faber, London; 4 pp.

96-2 1962 ChoSc; E; Boosey & Hawkes London; 4 pp.; B. & H. 18998.

    96-2 Straw1 ibd. [with corrections].

    96-2 Straw2 ibd. [no annotations].

96-2 [65] [1965] ibd.

b) Characteristic features

96-1 >ANTHEM / ’The dove descending breaks the air’< [in:] // Igor Stravinsky/Robert Craft: EXPOSITIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS, 168 pages, Faber and Faber, London 1962, Appendix B p. 154-157 // (Choral score without piano 13.3 x 21.5 (8° [8°]); sung text English; pages of the score without pagination; 5 [4] pages + 1 page front matter ( explications ] without back matter + plate before p. 145 with half-tone of the 1st page of the manuscript [up to bar 13 included]; author specified 1st page of score below title head flush left right > Words by T. S. Eliot [#] Music by / from 'Little Gidding' [#] Igor Stravinsky (1962)<; legal reservations all pages of the score below type area centre >© Igor Stravinsky 1962<; end of score dated in connection with dedication last page below legal reservation centre centred italic > Hollywood, California, 2 January 1962/ Dedicated to T. S. Eliot / Igor Stravinsky<; without further marks ) // 1962

96-2 Igor Stravinsky / ANTHEM / (The dove descending breaks the air) / for chorus a cappella/ BOOSEY & HAWKES // (Choral score stapled 19 x 27,9 (8° [Lex. 8°]); sung text English; 4 [4] pages + 4 cover pages thicker Paper black on light grey [front cover title, 3 empty pages] without front matter, without back matter; title head >ANTHEM / (The dove descending breaks the air) / for chorus a cappella<; dedication above title head centre italic > Dedicated to T. S. Eliot<; authors specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below title flush left >T. S. Eliot< flush right >IGOR STRAVINSKY / 1962<; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area flush left with an indentation on the 1st line of text >The words of this Anthem comprise Part IV of 'Little Gidding' in 'Four Quartets' by T. S. Eliot and are / reproduced by permission of the author and Faber & Faber Ltd. / Words copyright 1943 by T. S. Eliot. Reprinted in U.S.A. by permission of Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. / © 1962 by Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers Ltd. / BOOSEY & HAWKES MUSIC PUBLISHERS Ltd., 295 Regent Street, London.W.1< flush right >All rights reserved<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area below legal reservation flush right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 18998<; end of score dated p. 4 next to last bar oblong >Hollywood, Cal. / January 2, 1962<) // (1962)

96-2 Straw1

Strawinsky’s copy next to and below title head is signed and dated flush right >IStr / Toronto / 29 Apr. 1962< and contains the corrections (see Corrections / Errata).

96-2 Straw2

Strawinsky’s copy from his musical score collection (Paul Sacher Stiftung Basel >IS / PM / 131< 18.2 x 26 [Lex. 8°] is unbound and without annotations.

96-2 [65] Igor Stravinsky / ANTHEM / (The dove descending breaks the air) / for chorus a cappella/ BOOSEY & HAWKES // (Choral score stapled 19,3 x 26,1 (8° [Lex. 8°]); sung text English; 4 [4] pages + 4 pages cover thicker paper black on light grey [front cover title, 3 empty pages] without front matter, without back matter; title head >ANTHEM / (The dove descending breaks the air) / for chorus a cappella<; dedication 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 above title head centre centred italic > Dedicated to T. S. Eliot<; authors specified 1st page of the score below title flush left >T. S. Eliot< flush right >IGOR STRAVINSKY / 1962<; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area flush left with an indentation on the 1st line of text >The words of this Anthem comprise Part IV of 'Little Gidding' in 'Four Quartets' by T. S. Eliot and are / reproduced by permission of the author and Faber & Faber Ltd. / Words copyright 1943 by T. S. Eliot. Reprinted in U.S.A. by permission of Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. / © 1962 by Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers Ltd. / BOOSEY & HAWKES MUSIC PUBLISHERS Ltd.< right >All rights reserved / Tonsättning förbjudes<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area below legal reservation flush right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 18998<; end of the score dated p. 4 next to last bar oblong >Hollywood, Cal. / January 2, 1962<; without end mark) // [1965]


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