K104 Introitus

deutsch K104 Introitus

K104 Introitus

T. S. Eliot in memoriam for Male Chorus and Chamber Ensemble – Introitus zum Gedächtnis T[homas]. S[tearns]. Eliots für Männerchor und Kammerorchester – Introitus. T. S. Eliot in memoriam per coro mascile ed orchestra da camera

Title: Although Strawinsky used the title Introitus (Introit) to specify the genre, he was specifically referring to the Introit to the Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead, Missa pro Defunctis, for All Souls’ Day as the votive Mass of the day in the Ordo Exsequiarum of the Tridentine burial rite. From this, we can conclude that Strawinsky probably regarded the Requiem Introit with its hope for the resurrection of the Flesh, in accordance with his personal theology, as the most important liturgical Introit; it represents the entire genre with a number of more than 150 Introits from the Tridentine Graduale Romanum and Liber Usualis, to which all other Introits are inferior in terms of content.

Scored for: a) First edition: Arpa, Piano, 2 Tam-tam (acuto, basso: 2 esecutori), Timpani (2 esecutori) Viola/Contrebasso Soli [Harp, Piano, 2 Tamtams ( high, low: 2 performers), Timpani (2 performers), Viola and Double Bass Solo]; b) Performance requirements: two-part male choir Tenor-Bass, Harp, Piano, High Tamtam, Low Tamtam, Solo Viola, Solo Double Bass.

Score: The score is a modern block score showing only the parts playing at the time.

Performance practice: The tamtams and timpani together require four players in total. The timpani are used dodecaphonically, which requires well functioning pedal timpani or solo timpani. The high and low tamtams are played simultaneously. Strawinsky consulted a specialist for the timpani part, from whom he learned that two players would be necessary to play the part. For this reason presumably, Strawinsky used two percussion lines for the timpani and specified to Rufina Ampenow in his letter of 8th March 1965 that each timpanist should have both timpani parts in front of him or her. The choral tenor part is entirely notated in tenor clef. For the first performance, Strawinsky was obliged to rewrite it from tenor clef because the members of the choir from Chicago could not read it.

Source: The text set by Strawinsky as the Introit, 'Requiem aeternam' , is the Introit of the Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead, which has its general liturgical place on All Souls’ Day ( In commemoratione omnium defunctorum ordinis nostri , 2nd November); furthermore, for the above reason, it can be used daily as the votive Mass for the Dead, except for on Sundays, Feast Days and the high Easter Days. As with most Introits, the one for the Mass for the Dead is formally an antiphon (Antiphona ad Introitum), for which a psalm (here the 64th Psalm, Te Decet Hymnus ) is inserted into a framing verse. The framing verse Requiem Aeternam is a deutero-canonic text from the Apocrypha ( IV Esdr. 2.34-35 ), which is today dated as the Apocalypse at the end of the first century AD and which was pieced together and christologised. The division between the parts of the Old and New Testaments which are regarded as genuine and from those which are problematic, arose in several phases from the 4th Century onwards, and was completed in the 6th Century, at the same time at which the Introit had been adopted widely as a genre. Strawinsky's Introit (composed without textual verification) uses IV Esdr. 2.34-35 in its entirety and adds in the two psalm verses, Ps. 64.2 of the Catholic numbering.

Text Legend: Several interpreters of Strawinsky place weight on the assertion that Strawinsky changed the text of the Requiem for his purposes, as he turned the ‘ luceat eis’, which is a form made up of several sections, into a single form, luceat eo. This is a misinterpretation, presumably based on a lack of knowledge of the liturgy. The Catholic Mass of the Dead is, as a Votive Mass, dependent on the situation, in that it can be read for a deceased man, a deceased woman or for several deceased. If it is held on All Souls’ Day, the plural ( eis) is of course used, because it is intended for all the deceased across time who believed in Christ. This is also the same for the closing prayer of the Requiescant in pace. If it is held for the death of a particular person (and that is the normal situation), then not only the singular version, specified for the male ( eo) or female ( ea) gender, is sung or prayed, but in the Eucharistic High Prayer in the Canon, the (first) name of the person to the salvation of whom the Mass is being celebrated is also stated. The Canon is left open at this point. The same also holds for the closing prayer, which is then set in the singular Requiescat in pace, for which the conjugated form of the 3rd person singular in the present tense subjunctive in the Latin language covers all three genders, i.e. masculine, feminine and neuter. If the Mass is held in German, on the other hand, the difference between a man and a woman is made ( Er/sie möge ruhen im Frieden [not in Frieden]*). Strawinsky was a practising Christian of course, and so knew all these details. As his Requiem was intended for a single, male deceased person, the masculine singular reflexive pronoun, eo, is therefore used accordingly.

* Frieden = peace = pax = pax Christi stands not for the absence of war, but rest in the bosom of God.

Construction: The Introit is sung in Latin and has a continuous, unchanging Tempo throughout, crochet = 56; the piece is in one movement subdivided into sections, a dodecaphonic work for two-part male choir and a three-part antiphonal sung rite with an entire length of 53 bars. It has changing meters and a chamber-music accompaniment with only small departures from the historical Gregorian models. The sections are based on a chordal refrain on the tamtam, harp and piano, a parlando recited choral text accompanied by strings with and without timpani. Dramatic recited singing was an effective style of interpretation in old classical church music. The chordal refrain, which appears six times, has different functions, introductory, dividing and transitional, and was inserted there at the place where, in Gregorian performance practice, the psalm recitation would be the mediant between the two half verses. The choir entries occur according to the principle of registral linking. The instrumental handling is just as formulaic. The only departures from the formula are couplings, when, for example, the chordal refrain with its tamtam, harp and piano instrumentation is linked to the sung text with its timpani and string instrumentation. Timpani only play with the sung texts because they solemnly suspend a murmuring, reciting effect with strongly held mezzo piano sextuplets as if in the background. These moments are not without musical and historical meaning, because Strawinsky seems to take up the idea of singing in the foreground and background and with it, different degrees of comprehensibility, a compositional model which had been made into a system a decade before by Karlheinz Stockhausen. With Strawinsky, the idea was clearly to have an aurally conveyed tableau of a large group and a text simultaneously, but also different individual supplicants in a large church, in which echo effects as well as time delay effects are used. The work is formally in a loose A-B-A form, and accomplishes this in this order: A1: chordal refrain with the function of a Gregorian Initium with tamtams, harp and piano; A2: first half verse of the Antiphon, choral tenors with timpani and strings; A3: chordal refrain in place of the Gregorian mediant with tamtams, harp and piano; A4: second half verse of the Antiphon, choral tenors with timpani and strings; A5: recited repeat of the Antiphon verse, choral tenors with additional choral basses underpinned by a shortened chordal refrain with tamtams, harp, piano and strings; B1: fragment of the chordal refrain, with harp, piano, strings; B2: first psalm verse, first half of verse, choral basses with timpani and strings; B3: chordal refrain in place of the Gregorian mediant with tamtams, harp, piano; B4: first psalm, second half verse, choral basses with timpani and strings; B5: recited second psalm verse, choral basses with additional choral tenors and underpinned by a shortened choral refrain with tamtams, harp, piano and strings; C1: first half verse of the Antiphon, choral tenors and choral basses with timpani and strings; C2: chordal refrain in place of the Gregorian mediant with tamtams, harp and piano; C3: half verse of the second Antiphon, choral tenors and choral basses with timpani and strings; C4: instrumental coda with timpani, harp and strings. –

An insight into the compositional and structural events in the work is more difficult to attain. It begins with the chordal refrains, the structure of which has remained obscure to analysts up to the present day. The refrains are certainly linked to one another and differently constructed, even if rules can be found, such as top notes becoming bass notes, to uniformly propose a system for the unified rising chordal density and similar things, which do not in fact make sense. Strawinsky was aware of the difficulty of this logical ordering and described them as ‘fragments of a choral dirge’, whatever that may mean. Furthermore, he called the music ‘very simple’ which, if it was not intended to be understood formally or in terms of performance, may be interpreted as referring to the piece’s structural simplicity and its characterization as a personal utterance, and not for lack of a detectable, overriding organizational awareness. There are fewer difficulties in the analysis of the rows, which Strawinsky orders freely and vertically as well as horizontally between the voices and instruments. The work begins with the prime row at the entry of the choral tenors in Bar 3.

Structure

53 bars crotchet = 56 throughout.

Row: g#1-c#2-d2-c2-e2-f2-b1-a#1-a1-f#1-g1-d#1.

Corrections / Errata

1. p. 1, bar 1, nomenclatur: Tam-Tams instead of Tam-Tam.

2. p. 1, bar 1, Tam-Tam grave: minim without interruption after the crotchet rest, so that the two tam-

tam beats are not simultaneous but consecutive.

3. p. 1, bar 1, Tam-Tams: between both systems should be added a p-sign.

4. p. 1, bar 1, nomenclatur Harp: >sempre non arpeggio< should be added.

5. p. 1, bar 3: between Viola and Double bass should be added >soli<.

6. p. 1, bar 3, nomenclatur Double bass: >loco< below >Cb.< should be replaced by >(sounds as

written) loco<.

7. p. 2, bar 9, nomenclatur Harp: the >non arpeg,< is crossed out.

8. p. 5 bar 38 Viola: >arco< instead of >arco marc.<, the >marc.< under the note has to be put next

to the marcato-sign, the same applies for the double bass; a natural has to be added under

the double bass note.

(Possible) Printing error: in the viola part, Bar 21 (prime row crabwise) contains a possible printing error as can be seen from the rows. Instead of the written minim G sharp, there should be an A sharp.

Style: The work is freely dodecaphonic and homophonic. The text is set melismatically, syllabically and in recitation, and melisma is used for the emphasis of important moments in the text (Requiem or Dona or Luceat). The dodecaphony of the voices and of the instruments are strongly separated.

Dedication: The dedication is part of the main title.

Duration: 3' 47"*.

* The length of 3’47” reflects the average duration of a Gregorian Introit with a single verse and without doxology.

Date of origin: beginning of 1965 to 17. February 1965.

First performance: 17th April 1965, Chicago, members of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra,conducted by Robert Craft.

Remarks: Strawinsky was a friend of Thomas Stearns Eliot and regarded very highly the English poet, who was born on 26th December 1888 in St Louis, became an English citizen in 1927, joined the Anglican Church in 1928 and was Director of the publisher Faber & Faber, who later played an important role in the production of Strawinsky’s documents. When Eliot died on 4th January 1965 in London, Strawinsky lost an important Christian companion who shared his outlook and who was of great contemporary stature. It was likely that he would dedicate funeral music of special Christian content to him. Strawinsky must have begun his project immediately on hearing the news of his death. The three-and-a-half-minute work was completed on 17th February 1965. Further details on the composition are not known at present. Strawinsky himself kept silent.

Versions: The Introit was published in 1965 by Boosey & Hawkes as a conducting score and a pocket score, which was not available before July 1965. The British Library received both contributory copies on 31 stDecember 1965. No piano reduction was published, and the parts were available to hire. The publishing contract with Boosey & Hawkes was settled on 18th March 1965.

Historical Record: 9th February 1966, New York City, Gregg Smith Singersand the Columbia Chamber Ensembleconducted by Igor Strawinsky.

CD edition: XI-2/7.

Autograph: The autograph can be found in the Library of Congress, Washington.

Copyright: 1965 by Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers Ltd.

Editions

a) Overview

104-1 1965 FuSc; Boosey & Hawkes London; 12 pp.; B. & H. 19324.

    104-1Straw 1965 ibd. [ with corrections ].

104-2 1965 PoSc; Boosey & Hawkes London; 12 pp.; B. & H. 19324; 780.

b) Characteristic features

104-1 IGOR STRAVINSKY / INTROITUS / T. S. ELIOT IN MEMORIAM / for Male Chorus and Chamber Ensemble / Full Score / BOOSEY & HAWKES // IGOR STRAVINSKY / INTROITUS / T. S. ELIOT IN MEMORIAM / for Male Chorus and Chamber Ensemble / Full Score / BOOSEY & HAWKES / MUSIC PUBLISHERS LIMITED / London · Paris · Bonn · Johannesburg · Sydney · Toronto · New York // (Full score sewn in black 26.6 x 34 . 5 (4° [4°]); sung text Latin; 8 [8] pages + 4 cover pages black on light grey [front cover title, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >Igor Stravinsky<* production date at the top of the page >AT7496c< at the bottom of the page >No. 40< [#] >7.65<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, (world) premiere data English + legend Italian + duration data English] + 2 pages back matter [2 empty pages]; title head >INTROITUS<; dedication below title head centred >T. S. Eliot / in memoriam<; author specified 1st page of the score below title head flush right centred >IGOR STRAVINSKY / 1965<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >© 1965 by Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers Ltd.< flush right >All rights reserved / Tonsättning förbjudes<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area below legal reservation flush right > Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 19324<; end of score dated p. 8 flush right >Feb. 17/65 / Hollywood<; without end mark) // (1965)

* Compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers, without price information and without specification of places of printing >Operas and Ballets° / Agon [#] Apollon musagète / Le baiser de la fée [#] Le rossignol / Mavra [#] Oedipus rex / Orpheus [#] Perséphone / Pétrouchka [#] Pulcinella / The flood [#] The rake’s progress / The rite of spring° / Symphonic Works° / Abraham and Isaac [#] Capriccio pour piano et orchestre / Concerto en ré (Bâle) [#] Concerto pour piano et orchestre / [#] d’harmonie / Divertimento [#] Greetings°° prelude / Le chant du rossignol [#] Monumentum / Movements for piano and orchestra [#] Quatre études pour orchestre / Suite from Pulcinella [#] Symphonies of wind instruments / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine [#] Variations in memoriam Aldous Huxley / Instrumental Music° / Double canon [#] Duo concertant / string quartet [#] violin and piano / Epitaphium [#] In memoriam Dylan Thomas / flute, clarinet and harp [#] tenor, string quartet and 4 trombones / Elegy for J.F.K. [#] Octet for wind instruments / mezzo-soprano or baritone [#] flute, clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets and / and 3 clarinets [#] 2 trombones / Septet [#] Sérénade en la / clarinet, horn, bassoon, piano, violin, viola [#] piano / and violoncello [#] / Sonate pour piano [#] Three pieces for string quartet / piano [#] string quartet / Three songs from William Shakespeare° / mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet and viola° / Songs and Song Cycles° / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine° / Choral Works° / Anthem [#] A sermon, a narrative, and a prayer / Ave Maria [#] Cantata / Canticum Sacrum [#] Credo / J. S. Bach: Choral-Variationen [#] Introitus in memoriam T. S. Eliot / Mass [#] Pater noster / Symphony of psalms [#] Threni / Tres sacrae cantiones°< [° centre centred; °° original mistake in the title].

104-1Straw

The copy of Strawinsky’s estate is at the bottom of the fore-page right with >To Robert Craft / IStr / March 22/°65< signed and dated and contains corrections [° slash original].

104-2 HAWKES POCKET SCORES / ^IGOR STRAVINSKY / INTROITUS / T. S. ELIOT IN MEMORIAM^ / BOOSEY & HAWKES / No. 780 // HAWKES POCKET SCORES / IGOR STRAVINSKY / INTROITUS / T. S. ELIOT IN MEMORIAM / for Male Chorus and Chamber Ensemble / BOOSEY & HAWKES / MUSIC PUBLISHERS LIMITED / LONDON · PARIS · BONN · JOHANNESBURG · SYDNEY · TORONTO · NEW YORK / MADE IN ENGLAND / NET PRICE // (Pocket score stapled 13.9 x 18.7 (8°); 12 [8] pages + 4 cover pages dark green on dark beige [front cover title with frame 9,4 x 3,6 dark beige on dark green, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >Igor Stravinsky<* production date >No. 40< [#] >7.65<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend [without headline] Italian + duration data [>ca. 4 minutes<] English + (world) premiere data centred italic > First performance: Chicago Symphony, April 17th, 1965, / Robert Craft conducting. < + identification number >AT 5887c<] + 2 pages back matter [empty pages]; title head >INTROITUS<; dedication below title head >T. S. Eliot / in memoriam<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below dedication flush right centred >IGOR STRAVINSKY / 1965<; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area flush left >© 1965 by Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers Ltd.< flush right >All rights reserved / Tonsättning förbjudes<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area below legal reservation flush right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 19324<; end of score dated p. 8 >Feb. 17/65 / Hollywood<; without end mark) // (1965)

* Compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers, without price information and without specification of places of printing >Operas and Ballets° / Agon [#] Apollon musagète / Le baiser de la fée [#] Le rossignol / Mavra [#] Oedipus rex / Orpheus [#] Perséphone / Pétrouchka [#] Pulcinella / The flood [#] The rake’s progress / The rite of spring° / Symphonic Works° / Abraham and Isaac [#] Capriccio pour piano et orchestre / Concerto en ré (Bâle) [#] Concerto pour piano et orchestre / [#] d’harmonie / Divertimento [#] Greetings°° prelude / Le chant du rossignol [#] Monumentum / Movements for piano and orchestra [#] Quatre études pour orchestre / Suite from Pulcinella [#] Symphonies of wind instruments / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine [#] Variations in memoriam Aldous Huxley / Instrumental Music° / Double canon [#] Duo concertant / string quartet [#] violin and piano / Epitaphium [#] In memoriam Dylan Thomas / flute, clarinet and harp [#] tenor, string quartet and 4 trombones / Elegy for J.F.K. [#] Octet for wind instruments / mezzo-soprano or baritone [#] flute, clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets and / and 3 clarinets [#] 2 trombones / Septet [#] Sérénade en la / clarinet, horn, bassoon, piano, violin, viola [#] piano / and violoncello [#] / Sonate pour piano [#] Three pieces for string quartet / piano [#] string quartet / Three songs from William Shakespeare° / mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet and viola° / Songs and Song Cycles° / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine° / Choral Works° / Anthem [#] A sermon, a narrative, and a prayer / Ave Maria [#] Cantata / Canticum Sacrum [#] Credo / J. S. Bach: Choral-Variationen [#] Introitus in memoriam T. p. Eliot / Mass [#] Pater noster / Symphony of psalms [#] Threni / Tres sacrae cantiones°< [° centre centred; °° original mistake in the title].


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