K059 A Card Game

deutsch K059 Ein Kartenspiel

K59 Jeu de Cartes

Ballet en trois donnés, les mouvements scéniques réalisés par l’auteur en collaboration avec M. [onsieur] Malaieff* – Ein Kartenspiel. Ballett in drei Runden. Szenenfolge von Igor Strawinsky in Zusammenarbeit mit N. Malaieff – A Card Game (The Card Party). Ballet in three deals. Stage action devised by the composer in collaboration with N. Malayev – Gioco di Carte. Balletto in tre mani Sequenza delle scene di Igor Strawinsky in collaborazione con N. Malaieff

* The printing of ‘Malaieff’ without his first name, Nikita, occurs only in the piano reduction. The autograph score gives the first letter of Cartes as a capital letter; it was originally written in lower case.

Title: The title of the ballet is enigmatic. It is a game of cards but also a game which is played by the cards themselves. The French title Jeu de cartes encompasses both meanings. In the German translation, Kartenspiel gives the superficial meaning and Spiel der Karten the enigmatic interpretation. In the English title, the superficial A Card Game was used as the registered copyright title while the American version The Card Party catches the inherent ambiguity more successfully, an opinion which White shares. Strawinsky got worked up in a letter of 19th October 1940 to Ernest Voigt about the title A Poker Game, which was used against his will but under which the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo had performed his piece. Strawinsky’s decision for the title was taken at the end of September or the beginning of October 1936, shortly before the completion of the composition. – In the popular Strawinsky literature, the link between the M. and the name of Malayev creates difficulties. It stems from the printed version of the piano reduction and also occurs in a letter from Strawinsky to Dr. Ludwig Strecker. In both cases, the M. is an abbreviation of the French title ‘Monsieur’, which is used as a polite form of address in France with or without first names as well as on programme sheets; it therefore cannot be the abbreviation of an apparently incorrectly printed first name, Nikita. Strawinsky, who, in connection with the printing of his collaborator’s name, had correctly shortened the name Nikita to ‘N.’ on 26th November 1936 when writing to Strecker, requested that the title page and the first pages be sent to him as quickly as possible in order that he might put M. Malayev’s (i.e. Mr. Malayev) mind at rest on the matter of how his name was to be presented. This M. was then transferred over to the printed German title page; whether this was a conscious decision or an oversight remains unclear.

Scored for: a) First edition (Forces): 27 playing cards including one Joker; ~ (Orchestra): 2 Flauti grandi (2: anche piccolo), 2 Oboi (2: anche Corno inglese), 2 Clarinetti in Si e La, 2 Fagotti, 4 Corni in Fa, 2 Trombe in Do, 3 Tromboni, Tuba, Timpani, Gran cassa, Violini I (12), Violini II(10), Viole (8), Violoncelli (6), Contrabassi (6) [2 Flutes (2: also Piccolo), 2 Oboes (2: also English horn), 2 Clarinet in B b and A, 2 Bassoons, 4 Horns in F, 2 Trumpets in C, 3 Trombones, Tuba, Timpani, Big Drum, Violins I (12), Violins II(10), Violas (8), Violoncellos (6), Double Basses (6)]; b) Performance requirements: 15 Dancers; Piccolo Flute (= 2nd Flute), 2 Flutes (2nd Flute = Piccolo Flute), 2 Oboes (2nd Oboe = English horn), English horn (= 2nd Oboe), 2 Clarinets in B b and A, 2 Bassoons, 4 Horns in F, 2 Trumpets in C, 3 Trombones, Tuba, 3 Timpani, Big Drum, Solo Violin, Solo Viola, Solo Violoncello, Solo Double Bass, Strings (12 First Violins*, 10 Second Violins*, 8 Violas*, 6 Violoncellos*, 6 Double Basses).

* Divided in three.

Summary: [Pre-understanding / Background knowledge:] normally, poker is played with 52 cards with the 4 suits, clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds, all of equal strength. The goal of the game is to attain specific combinations of cards which have their own names: 1. High card (worthless); 2. Pair (2 cards of the same value); 3. Two pairs; 4. Three-of-a-kind (3 cards of the same value); 5. Straight (a sequence of five cards of various suits but of consecutive values); 6. Flush (5 cards of different values but of the same suit); 7. Full house (combination of a pair and a three-of-a-kind); 8. Four-of-a-kind (4 cards of the same value); 9. Straight flush (a straight made up of cards of the same suit); 10. Royal flush (the five highest cards of one suit). The combination of cards with the highest value wins. The sequence of play is dictated and normally proceeds thus: 1. The cards are dealt, 2. The first round of betting, 3. New cards are drawn, 4. Second round of betting, 5. Showdown (the cards are revealed). Each player has three possibilities after play has begun. He can: 1. Pass (stay out of the round of betting), 2. ‘See’ match the bets of those who have preceded him, 3. ‘See’ the bets of those who have gone before him and raise his bet. Each player plays against all the others. With only three players, the numbered cards 2-6 in all suits are removed and the game is played with 32 cards. Poker can also include a single Joker card. In this case, the situation changes considerably because the joker can both replace a missing card and at the same time double a card that is already being used. Poker is technically an ‘absolute game of luck’, in which the ability, experience and skill of a player has no recognisable influence on the events of the game. The game is played with money and the stakes are sometimes high, and can be further raised during the course of the game (bets).] –

Strawinsky’s ballet is a game of poker including a joker in which three players take part, each with five cards in three rounds of play. The dancers are dressed as cards, but at first enter with a mask and domino, a concealing mask of black silk which was developed from a piece of clothing from the sixteenth century and in the eighteenth century was mainly worn at the opening scene of the Venetian carnival. When the remaining cards are revealed during the game, this is reflected in the ballet by the removal of the mummery, which allows the cards to be recognised. The stage is a playing table and the players are represented by three directions, gardenside, centre and yardside (according to Strawinsky’s and Malayev’s original conception); the shuffling and dealing of the cards is represented by an Alla Breve introduction, which characterizes the ballet and the entrance. The single joker acts not only as a card but as a power-obsessed mischief-maker intent on ruining the game and who wants to win at all costs, even it means using violence on the other cards. This conflict is the dramatic centre of the plot, in which three players play a game of poker. –

After the first deal in the first round, the queens and jacks of clubs and diamonds and the ace of spades are discarded. The other two hands hold identical straights, with the king, queen, jack, 9 of hearts and 10 of spades on one side, and the queen, jack, 9 of spades, 10 of hearts and the joker on the other side (the joker replaces the missing king card). The player with the joker cannot win. The joker has an attack of rage and leaves the stage with thoughts of revenge while the other nine cards remain unaffected. –

In the second round, it appears from the preliminary situation of the cards as if the hand holding the queens (clubs, spades, diamonds) with the queen and jack of hearts (four-of-a-kind) must win. The jack of hearts, who has introduced the queen of hearts, begins a celebratory dance. The hand holding the three kings (clubs, spades, diamonds) and 2 jacks (clubs, spades) appears to be beaten (full house) and leaves the stage showing humility. There is however a twist: the third group unmasks itself, and amongst its helpers, the four aces (four of a kind but with a higher value), stands the joker. The jack of hearts sees that the struggle is lost and retreats. The joker celebrates his victory with an irreverent dance and then attacks the four queens. –

In the third round, the nine to five of hearts make up the first hand (straight flush), which is beaten after a fearsome struggle by the hand holding the joker, the 10 to 7 of spades (a straight flush but with a higher value). While the joker begins to celebrate his triumph however, he catches sight of the royal flush made up of the ace, king, queen, jack and 10 of hearts and breaks down. Servants in wigs and livery carry him off. The ace of hearts crowns the king and queen of hearts and they dance the finale with the other heart cards which have now returned.

Summary according to Strawinsky: >ARGUMENT / Le sujet de ce ballet, dont les personnages sont les principales figures d’un jeu de / cartes, s’inspire d’une partie de poker, disputée entre plusieurs adversaires sur le / tapis vert d’une salle de jeux, et compliquée à chaque donne par les constantes roueries du perfide et inlassable Joker, qui se croit invincible, grâce à sa faculté de se métamorphoser en n`importe quelle carte. / Durant la première donne, l’un des joueurs est battu, mais les deux autres adversai- / res restent en cartes, malgré la présence, chez l’un d’eux, du Joker, qui ne réussit / pas à triompher d’un „straight“. / A la deuxième donne, la main qui possède le Joker est victorieuse, grâce à un carré / d’as qui, l’emportant sans difficulté sur un adversaire de moindre force, bat un carré de dames. / Mais vient la troisième donne, et l’action se corse de plus en plus. Cette fois-ci / il s’agit d’une lutte entre trois „flush“: bien que victorieux au début d’un premier / adversaire, le Joker, paradant à la tête d’une séquence de pique, est abattu par un / „royal flush“ de cœur qui mettra fin à sa malice et à ses fourberies. / „Il faut faire aux méchants guerre continuelle, / (ainsi que l’a dit le bon La Fontaine) / „La Paix est fort bonne de soi; / „J’en conviens. Mais de quoi sert-elle / „Avec des ennemis sans foi?“ – SUMMARY / The characters in this ballet are the chief cards in a game of Poker, disputed / between several players on the green cloth of a card-room. At each deal the / situation is complicated by the endless guiles of the perfidious Joker, who believes / himself invincible because of his ability to become any desired card. / During the first deal, one of the players is beaten, but the other two remain / with even “straights”, although one of them holds the Joker. / In the second deal, the hand holds the Joker is victorious, thanks to four / Aces who easily beat four Queens. / Now comes the third deal. The action becomes more and more acute. This / time it is a struggle between three “flushes”. Although at first victorious over / one adversary, the Joker, strutting at the head of a sequence of Spades, is beaten / by a “Royal Flush” in Hearts. This puts an end to his malice and knavery. / “One should ever struggle against wrongdoers, / (as once said La Fontaine) / “Peace, I grant, is perfect in its way, / “But what purpose does it serve / “With ennemies* who do not keep faith?” – INHALTSANGABE / Der Gedanke dieses Balletts ist eine Partie Poker. Mehrere Spieler sitzen an dem grünen Tisch eines Spielsaales. Die Tänzer stellen die hauptsächlichen Karten dar. Bei jedem Spiel wird der Ablauf durch die fortgesetzten Tricks des unzuverlässigen Jokers erschwert. / Nach dem ersten Geben scheidet ein Spieler aus. Seine zwei Gegner bleiben im Spiel mit gleichen „Straights“. Obwohl der eine von ihnen den Joker besitzt, ist dieser nicht im Stande, die Entscheidung zu bringen. / Im zweiten Spiel gewinnt der Spieler mit dem Joker dank einer Hand von Assen, mit denen er alles schlägt und schließlich über die vier Damen triumphiert. / Es wird zum dritten Mal gegeben. Die Lage wird immer schwieriger. Diesmal handelt es sich um einen Kampf zwischen drei „flushes“. Zunächst besiegt der Joker an der Spitze einer Pique Sequenz den einen Gegner; er wird aber schließlich selbst geschlagen durch ein „royal flush“ in Herz. Dies setzt den Streichen des Tunichtguts ein Ende. / Wie sagt doch der alte La Fontaine? / „Daraus nun können wir ersehen, / „Daß man beständig Krieg muß führen mit den Bösen. / „Gut ist an sich des Friedens Walten, / „Doch kann vom Übel er erlösen / „Wenn nicht ihr Wort die Feinde halten?“<

* Original spelling.

Construction: Jeu de cartes is a ballet with a plot in three parts which is through-written without breaks; it has numerous external quotations used in collage and the markings for the choreography appear only in the piano reduction. The sections are called Runden (Deals) in order to maintain the language of the card game.

Structures

a) Stage version

Première donne (Erste Runde - First Deal)

Garten =

Zentrum = Centre

Hof =Courtyard

(Colour of the Dominos and the masks: blue)

(Distribution of players: 1. Centre, 2. Courtyard, 3. Garden side)

Alla breve Minim = 69 (figure 41 up to the end of figure 5)

Meno mosso Crotchet = 108 (figure 6 up to figure 11 3)

[Fifteen cards come onto the stage at figure 6 in groups of three; at figure 7, the first group of masks and dominoes is jettisoned and dances up to figure 16]

Moderato assai Crotchet = 84 (figure 112 up to the end of figure 20)

[at figure 16, the group stands still; the others raise themselves up and demask themselves in the order: 9 of Hearts/9 of Spades, 10 of Spades/10 of Hearts, Jack of Hearts/Jack of Spades, Queen of Hearts/Queen of Spades, King of Clubs/Joker; at the entry of the Joker, the first group surrenders and leaves the stage during the six bars of figure 20. But the Joker’s party has also lost]

Stringendo Crotchet = 108 (figure 21 up to the end of figure 33)

[The Joker’s outbreak of rage and futile challenge; the Joker leaves the stage deep in thoughts of revenge during the five bars of figure 33]

Tranquillo Crotchet = 84 (figure 34 up to the end of figure 39)

[Unimpressed by the Joker’s conduct, the nine that remain dance a peaceful dance in a waltz rhythm]

Deuxième donne (Zweite Runde - Second Deal)

(Colour of the Dominos and the masks: rose)

(Distribution of players: 1. Garden side, 2. Courtyard, 3. Centre)

Alla breve Minim = 69 (figure 40 up to the end of figure 42)

Marcia Crotchet = 112 (figure 43 up to the end of figure 58)

[The 15 playing cards come onto the stage masked and divide themselves into three groups; towards the end of the march, the Kings of Diamonds, Clubs and Spades and their pages, the Jacks of Clubs and Spades unmask themselves; lastly, the Jack of Hearts introduces the Queen of Hearts (last bar of the March)]

Var. I Allegretto Crotchet = 58 (figure 59 up to the end of figure 61)

[Variation of the Queen of Hearts]

Var. II Achtel = Achtel (figure 62 up to the end of figure 70)

[Variation of the Queen of Diamonds]

Var. III Achtel = Achtel (figure 71 up to the end of figure 74)

[Variation of the Queen of Clubs]

Var. IV Crotchet = 76 (figure 75 up to the end of figure 78)

[Variation of the Queen of Spades]

Var. V Sostenuto e pesante Crotchet = 69-72 (figure 79 up to the end of figure 82)

[Variation: Triumphal Dance of the Jack of Hearts]

Coda Più mosso Crotchet = 100 (figure 83 up to the end of figure 88)

[Final Dance of all the women and the Jack of Hearts; explanation of the loyalty of the kings of Diamonds, Clubs and Spades and the Jacks of Clubs and Spades, and their departure]

Marcia Crotchet = 112 (figure 89 up to the end of figure 91

[The Joker, with the four Aces as helpers, turns the tables; the Jack of Hearts submits to him and exits]

Con moto Crotchet = 108 (figure 92 up to the end of figure 116 with figures from 99 up to 105

repeated*)

[debauched dance of the Joker]

Troisième donne (Dritte Runde - Third Deal)

(Colour of the Dominos and the masks: blue)

(Distribution of players: 1. Courtyard, 2. Garden side, 3. Centre)

Alla breve Minim = 69 (figure 117 up to the end of figure 120)

Valse Crotchet = 184 = dotted Minim = 60 (figure 121 up to figure 151)

[All fifteen cards come onto the stage. The Nine to Five of Hearts unmask themselves and dance with the others]

Presto Minim = 88 (figure 152 up to the end of figure 168)

[The group of Jokers with the numbers 10 to 7 of Spades unmask themselves and chase off the Hearts cards]

Quaver triplet = Crotchet = 120 (circa) (figure 169 up to the end of figure 201)

[While the so far victorious group of Jokers returns, the third group unmasks itself as a Royal Flush. The Joker breaks down. His cards leave the stage. The Hearts cards celebrate their victory with a joyful dance, and the Hearts cards that had been chased off but have now returned, join in]

Tempo del principio (Alla breve Minim = 69) (figure 202 up to figure 202 7**)

* The repeat is omitted in concert performance.

** The first two of the seven final bars of the ballet are omitted in concert performance.

b) Concert version

Première donne (Erste Runde - First Deal)

Musique d'introduction (Introduktion - Introduction)

Pas d'action (Aktionstanz - Pas d'action)

Danse du Joker (Tanz des Jokers - Dance of the Joker)

Petite valse (Kleiner Walzer - Little Waltz)

Deuxième donne (Zweite Runde - Second Deal)

Musique d'introduction (Introduktion - Introduction)

Marche (Marsch - Marche)

Variations des quatre Reines (Variationen der vier Königinnen - Variations of the Four Queens)

Variation du Valet de coeur (Variation des Herzbuben - Variation of the Jack of Hearts)

Coda (Koda - Coda)

Reprise de la Marche et danse d'ensemble (Wiederholung des Marsches und gemeinsamer Tanz - Reprise of March and Danse d'ensemble)

Troisième donne (Dritte Runde - Third Deal)

Musique d'introduction (Introduktion - Introduction)

Valse (Walzer - Waltz)

Presto (Combat des Piques et des Coeurs) (Presto <Kampf der Pik und Herzen> - Presto <Battle between the Spades and Hearts>)

Danse final (Triomph des Coeurs) (Schlusstanz >Triumph der Herzen> - Final Dance <Triumph of the Hearts>)

Concert version : For the concert performances which happened in the same year as the staged première, Strawinsky put together a sequence of movements which are not numbered but which have separate titles. He published these for the first time, originally in the French language, at a concert in Paris on 6th December 1937 with an extremely short explanation of the scenes. Apart from this, he also made two structural alterations: the first was to remove the repeat of figures 99-105, thus shortening the finale of the second deal by 37 bars, and the second was to remove the first two of the final seven bars of the end of the ballet. He finally demanded that the piece be played without interruption. The hand-written note ‘ La musique de ce ballet se joue sans interruption et d’autant plus sans coupures’ was (in the [illogical] second half of the phrase), a spiteful remark against Ernest Ansermet; Strawinsky had already fallen out with him badly over the question of cuts and this was something that did not heal over many years.

Corrections / Errata

Full score = 59-1

Annotations with red crayon and pencil, interspersed with notes on performance

1.) p. 4, figure 27, 2nd Oboe (pencil): This should be quarter-semiquarter-semiquarter = d b 1-c1-rest.

2.) p. 26, figure 146, 2nd Bassoon (pencil): This should be bass clef – chord quaver c#-a.

3.) p. 26 (pencil): figure 46 2ƒ; figure 471 p; figure 148 ƒ; figure 48 81 p; figure 48 2ƒ.

4.) p. 30, figure 59 1(red): Quarter = 116.

5.) p. 30, figure 261, 1. Flute (red): This semiquaver ligature should be c3-g2natural-g2-g2. 6.) p. 43, figure 83 1: above and below 3rd Trombone-Tuba: Crotchet = 104 / >faster<.

7.) p. 49, figure 92 1: >slightly slower<.

8.) p. 50 figure 93 1Trumpet: The notes that are there should be deleted and replaced with a bar’s rest.

9.) p. 54, figure 198 legend, 2nd Violin instead of Viola.

10.) p. 58, figure 2109, 1st Violins: the 3rd quaver should be read b1 instead of b b1.

11.) p. 60, figure 115 4, 1st Flute (pencil): Quarter + semiquaver ligature f#2 + g2 [instead of:

f#2without accidental]-a2-b2without accidental-h2natural.

12.) p. 62, figure 119 4Trumpets and Trombone + Tuba: the last crotchet should be read A binstead of A.

13.) p. 76, figure 146 21st and 2nd Flute: the 2nd two-note chord should be read f#1-d#2 instead of f#1-b1.

14.) p. 77 / figure 152 1Horns: It should read psecco with a decrescendo sign to the end of the 2 nd

two-note chord instead of mpsecco, then a pat the 3rd two-note chord.

15.) p. 77 / figure 152 2Horns: A decrescendo sign followed by a >simile< should be entered at the beginning of the bar.

16.) p. 78 / figure 154 11st Violins: the expression mark should be replaced by >poco sƒ < the same is 154 2.

17.) p. 79, figure 155 3Bassoon: ƒ instead of mƒ; Viola: ƒ has to be added; crotchet with accent >,

Solo Violin ƒ instead of mƒ.

18,) p. 79, figure 155 4Solo Violin: 1st and 3rd note with accent >.

19.) p. 86, figure 169: Tempo Crotchet = meno mosso, >in 3 slower<.

20.) p. 87, figure 170 1-3Oboes, Clarinets, Bassoons. >marcato in p<.

21.) p. 87, figure 1171 Tuba: >Ance ƒ <, the same is 171 3-4; last note >etc<.

22.) p. 87, figure 173 31st Violins: the expression mark should be replaced by >marcato<.

23.) p. 88, figure 2174: Trumpets: crescendo-sign, the same is 1st Violins.

24.) p. 88, figure 1174 Flutes: ƒ-sign; 174 3Clarinets: ƒ instead of mƒ.

25.) p. 90, figure 180 5 Oboen >Soli – mƒ; 180 6above the tree double notes staccato-dots.

26.) p. 90, figure 181 1Flutes >sub p<; 181 3-4 mƒ – sub p< 182 1 mƒ, the 3 last chords with staccato-dots, 182 2all notes with staccato-dots, 182 31st note with staccato-dot.

The dispute with Ansermet: Ernest Ansermet’s demands that the score be shorted at his discretion, especially at certain moments, must have wounded Strawinsky just as bitterly as Strecker’s apparent lack of understanding; these cuts would have ruined Strawinsky’s conception, aside from the fact that the extremely condensed scores of middle and late Strawinsky could certainly not withstand being cut. The specific moments concerned the bars at figures 45 2-58 2, i.e. the middle section and end of the short March, which he asked Strawinsky to remove in a letter of 15 thOctober 1937, something which shocked Strawinsky a great deal and which he refused point-blank by return of post four days later on 19 thOctober. Ansermet had in addition shown great appreciation for the composition and said to him that he would be delivering a jewel at the performance. He would be able to convince himself of it personally when he heard it on Radio Paris on 27th October at 19.30. Strawinsky did not hear the performance because he was in Amsterdam at the time, where he was to conduct Jeu de cartes on 28th October. Strawinsky’s letter to Ansermet (19th October 1937) had a poisonous and enraging effect (… et je voudrais dire: <mais vous n’êtes pas chez vous, mon cher>, je ne vous avais jamais dit: <tenez, vous avez ma partition et vous en ferez ce qui vous plaira>…-… and I would like to say to you: ‘but you are not in your right mind, my dear’, I have never said to you: ‘Take my score and do with it what you wish’…); Ansermet however defied Strawinsky’s instruction, that Jeu de cartes should either be played in its entirety without cuts or not at all. He gave structural reasons for this. He had certainly partly formed the fundamental image of Strawinsky as composer, and had recorded one Strawinsky piece after another after 1945, something which attests to his enduring love of Strawinsky‘s music. Whether his thoughts which led to his extensive and much criticized book considerations (>Les fondements de la musique dans la conscience humaine< Neuchâtel 1961, in German >Die Grundlagen der Musik im menschlichen Bewußtsein< München 1965) already took shape back then must be explained by Ansermet’s biographer. Strawinsky seems to hint at this when he speaks in a letter of 8th January 1938 to Strecker of the ‘strange megalomania’ which had been evident with ‘poor’ Ansermet recently ( L’étrange megalomanie dont est obsédé ce pauvre Ansermet depuis certain temps…). We know from the correspondance that Ansermet wanted to remove the middle section and the short March because he did not like them. Strawinsky fought against this – using the same reasons Ansermet fought for – on structural grounds, but without naming them specifically; in actual fact, the unmasking of the cards here proceeded according to Strawinsky’s choreographic conception. Strawinsky was probably desperate that Ansermet had promoted and supported him for decades but, as the situation at the time seems to indicate, he only understood it musically in the end and not noetically. Since Ansermet refused to listen to reason, as was his manner, Strawinsky’s horror increased to an irrational and, over the decades, a bitter hatred for his old friend and companion, who strengthened his wish to cut sections of the piece with scarcely comprehensible arguments. This drove Strawinsky to a break of such a radical nature that it was presumed that there were other reasons behind it than artistic ones. From then on, Strawinsky avoided Ansermet. He even decided not to take part in a Parisian remembrance service for Ramuz, from the great fear that he might see Ansermet there. His friends were also sycophantic to him in letters in which they openly reported unpleasant things about Ansermet and accused him of craving admiration and striving to be the centre of attention. Strawinsky was almost happy in the face of open criticism when he learnt from a letter sent to him by Dr. F. Blanchod of 8th November 1938 that a written tribute conceived in honour of the 20th anniversary of the founding of Ansermet’s orchestra was omitted because, as he noted in the margin, in the thoughts about the conflict over Jeu de cartes, his homage would have been otherwise in the chronicle of his life. What he made comments on against his better judgement and what he said publicly were two different things, and when he was asked again to say something about Ansermet by Elie Gagnebin in the middle of the Second World War, what he wrote back on 11th May 1942 sounded neither unfriendly nor unthankful. Three years after the war, they saw each other again in America for the first time. The end of the split was covered over by both of them and the quality of Ansermet’s performances of Strawinsky is unmistakable. In old age, they were reconciled with one another to a certain extent. When Ansermet died on 20th February 1969 in Geneva, Strawinsky was deeply shaken. He had now truly lost his last companion from the old days.

Style: Jeu de cartes is a constructed suite in the neo-Classical style with sequences of small scenes which bind the three-movement form over the introduction. There is no sense of developing symphonic theme. The external quotations in Jeu de cartes, which are easily recognisable, are thus:

Opening of the Allegretto Scherzando from Beethoven’s 8th Symphony (opening of the first variation at figure 59), a passage from the opera Die Fledermaus by Johann Strauss (4th variation in the 1 stviolins figures 75-78), the beginning of the overture to Rossini’s Barber of Seville (several times from figure 153), a section from La Valse by Ravel (figure 133 2, figure 138, varied and anticipated at figure 4) a possible quotation from Peter and the Wolf by Prokofiev (the opening of the March at figure 43) as well as music by Delibes, Tchaikovsky and Debussy. They grow out of the rhythmic figuration, but remain connected to the situation and can be understood in a witty sense, as the connections indicate. They have nothing to do with the ideologically heavy amoured style of quotation in later collage music, for example Bernd Alois Zimmerman and his imitators. Strawinsky later explained that he did not incorporate any programmatic elements, a statement which must be interpreted because it seems to contradict the facts; it was probably only intended to refer to representative situations described by a single gesture. He certainly assigned distinctive instrumental sounds to the separate rounds of the card game which are specific to each scene and which serve as recognisable points of identification for the situation. The composer, who was used to characterizing with tone colour, finds it more difficult than one who uses motives because the number of instruments and their possible combinations are limited and one instrument is not exclusively assigned to a single role but is also used elsewhere, above all when, as in Jeu de cartes, so many other roles need to be filled. It was customary in old ballet tradition that the softer woodwinds were used to represent the women, here the Queens, and the brass the men, and for the special case of the Joker, he develops a tone colour of horns and strings which sounds especially rhythmically wrong-headed opposite the other colours. In doing so he works less by manipulating defined instrumental sound than by the manipulation of tone colour, which is created by different instruments. This makes it possible, as a form of choreographical ‘Leit-Tone Colour’ to hear events in the orchestra which have not yet been realized visually such as recognizing the cards before they have removed their masks and dominos, i.e. been turned over. Strawinsky links a gestural statement of the motive to this. This was why Ansermet’s opinion that the score should be shortened, especially the middle movement and the final section of the short March (specifically the bars at figures 45 2-58 2), irritated him so much; since the gestural preparation of the introduction of the Queen of Hearts is carried out by the Jack of Hearts in the final section, which is also true for her unmasking, which happens aurally before it happens visually. In a stylezid showy, even varietélike manner, the Jack of Hearts, to whom the bassoons are assigned, introduce the Queen of Hearts with a motif which towers high to draw attention to it in the style of a fanfare. The Jack indicates with both hands towards the masked card. This card begins its unmasking by removing its mask, something which is normally done jerkily, a movement which Strawinsky proscribed. It is constructed motifically in such a way that the bassoon fanfare intrudes into the removal of the mask. The card now discards its domino and reveals itself to be a heart. One does not throw off such a piece of clothing, but allows it to slip off. This slipping movement is also described instrumentally by Strawinsky, making it understandable as to why he was resisting the cutting of this and similar moments, i.e. the structural connections. All the hands of poker in the ballet can in fact be understood in this or similar contexts, almost page for page. Strawinsky continued to use the process and employed it differently for the programmatic elements in the ballet Agon with its simplified plot.

Dedication: no dedication known.

Duration: about 5'16" + 9'44" + 7'33".

Date of origin: Paris, March 1936 up to 6. Dezember 1936. According to Craft, the ballet was completed on 3rd December 1936; in fact, the sketches are originally dated 3rd December 1936 and the score 6th December 1936, while figures 189-192 were written on the ship Kap Arcona.

History of origin: A new ballet, later called >Jeu de cartes<, is first mentioned in a letter by Nicolas Nabokov of 11th August 1935. Nabokov had the task of approaching Strawinsky in 1935, not 1936, on behalf of Balanchine in order to ask for a classical ballet to be written for the American Ballet to expand its repertoire. Strawinsky at first ignored Nabokov and his inquiry in summer 1935, presumably because he was arguing with Nabokov at the time. He then not only agreed but began to chase them. As is seen in Strawinsky’s letter from 25th November 1935 to Balanchine, he wanted to have the official commission as soon as possible and he gave the impression that he only knew of the matter via Paichadze, the director of the Russian music publishers. The first sketches, including the main motif of the introduction, were written on 2nd December 1935. Until the beginning (7th/8th ) of April 1936, the date of his departure to South America, large sections of each of the three ‘deals’ had already been completed, including the theme of the second round and some of the variations and the coda. At this time, after Strawinsky had been developing his ballet for a long time, Balanchine, himself working on his own dramatization of a fairytale by Andersen, thought that Strawinsky had been given a free hand from the start, as his letter of 11th June 1936 demonstrates, something which contradicts what he said later. On 30th June 1936, Strawinsky mentioned to Balanchine that the ballet on which he was working, which in fact had been complete for a long time apart from a few sections, was no divertissement (today Russian дивертисмент; Strawinsky wrote to Balanchine in Russian), something which Balanchine had obviously been afraid of. He said that it had a clear and entirely comprehensible theme with a simple scenario, demanded a normal orchestra, some male and female solo dancers, a set and a few effective costumes. In terms of duration, Strawinsky gave a limit of twenty to twenty five minutes, and the style of the scenery had to be classical. He demanded $3,000 for the première, a guarantee of at least five performances with a premium of $100 each as an author’s fee and the fee for the hire of the materials, $700 dollars for each of the three performances which were to be conducted by him and finally $500 for his son Theodore for the reproduction rights of the set and the costumes. The subsequent correspondence for the negotiations over the money was a poker game in itself, especially as Strawinsky also retained all the performance rights, something that he later expressly indicated in a letter of 16th October 1940 to Ernest Voigt. The American Samuel Dushkin was engaged as an intermediary, whose letters to Strawinsky of 2nd August were answered on 12th August. –

A few days later, Willy Strecker of Schott Publishing House received proofs of the new ballet from Strawinsky, and Strecker’s enthusiasm made Strawinsky very happy as his telegram of 22nd August shows; in this telegram, he declared himself ready to have the ballet published by Schott. Strecker and Strawinsky presumably met on 15th September 1936 to have a preliminary discussion of the publishing contract, which was settled four days later on 19th September 1936, at which point the publishers had already received sections of the manuscript and printing had begun. Strawinsky was still able to remove certain mistakes in the manuscript, as can be seen from letters from 17th and 21st September. The printing of the orchestral score contained more mistakes than Strawinsky had expected, as he mentioned to Strecker in his letter of 15th December 1936. Strecker, however, warned him about an American staging of the ballet in Germany with a bad orchestra and an insufficient number of rehearsals, and secured Strawinsky large German halls (apart from Berlin). Everything then proceeded very quickly. On 16th September 1936, Warburg agreed Strawinsky’s conditions, and Strawinsky touched up the score once again to his satisfaction on 6th October. On 22nd October he received the final contract and sent it off on the same day for Strecker’s attention. After Strawinsky’s arrival in America, the details of the payment were reworked by Warburg on 19th January 1937. Schott collected the performance payments in Germany before the war for him and they received a certain percentage of the income for their efforts. Even while he was still completing the final sections of the score, he tried to get Jean Cocteau on board to work with him. He however was not interested in occupying himself at a comparatively late stage with a scenario to a piece of music that was already essentially conceived in its entirety. Soulima’s friend, Nikita Malayev, did help, but felt that he was badly rewarded. His name only appears in the piano reduction and Strawinsky strongly opposed, with success, his being named as a collaborator on the libretto at the New York première, because the scenario from Paris was overruled by Balanchine. This was further proof that the 32-year-old choreographer had not got well with the project, und thus the production was not the highlight of ballet history that it shoud has been. In a later written agreement of 6th December 1937, Malayev declared that he had come to terms with this. Schott began printing before the ballet had even been completed. What proportion of Strawinsky’s work was spent on the score in comparison to the piano reduction can be construed from the correspondance. With eighteen pages of the piano reduction being sent on 3rd November, the names of the acts and scenes were changed to deals. One day later, he sent off thirty pages of the orchestral score, and on 24th November, a further 31 pages including Théodore’s illustrations for the piano reduction with the postscript that the ballet was not yet complete and that fifteen pages were still missing. In the meanwhile, the first corrections came from Schott. Still in November, Strawinsky sent back the proof-read score, parts and piano reduction to Mainz up to figure 70. On 6th December the ballet was finally complete, both compositionally and in terms of orchestration. It has been proven that Erich Itor Kahn completed the piano reduction up to figure 183. His name was withheld as a collaborator. Strawinsky found his work to be good, but rejected it with the reason that it was too heavy (“ Anstendige Arbeit aber viel zu schwer!”). Kahn corrected his “decent” work, and Strawinsky himself took part in this. Kahn and Strawinsky were still working on it together on 1st December, and he sent off a list to Schott on the same day of the errors in the manuscript to be removed. On 9th December 1936, the final section was sent to Schott along with the orchestral score and the piano reduction.

First performance: 27. April 1937, Metropolitan Opera House in New York with William Dollar (Joker) and the American Ballet; stage design and costumes by Irene Sharaff, Choreography by George Balanchine under the direction of Igor Strawinsky. The concert version was played for the first time at the Venice Biennale 12th December 1937 under the direction of Igor Strawinsky.

Remarks: Unlike in other of Strawinsky’s compositions, the brief history of the composition of the ballet has a long-spanning pre-history. Many aristocratic families under the Tsar, including the Strawinskys, spent at least a part of their summer weeks of the year at one of the luxurious German baths, where they were able to give themselves over to their passion for games, among other things. Igor Strawinsky therefore got to know early in his life the rarified atmosphere and psychologically cunning circle of the aristocratic playing salon. Later on, poker was for a long time one of his favourite pastimes as the Russian passion for playing seems to be distinctive. In any case, no other European country uses the game as frequently as a theme in its spoken and sung high literature. Strawinsky had already conceived the idea of staging a game of poker going into the early twenties, a decade before the composition of Jeu de cartes. The connections between the commissioner and the commissionee are therefore debatable in this case. It can be denied just as much as it can be claimed that Jeu de cartes was a work commissioned by the American Ballet, Lincoln Kirstein and Balanchine which was suggested to Strawinsky in 1936 and for which he was given carte blanche for the subject matter. This is how it was described by George Balanchine and Francis Mason, who published to this effect six years after Strawinsky’s death (the contract partner for rights was formally Kirstein’s banker and classmate from Harvard, Edward M. M. Warburg, who had however nothing to do with the commission, it appears). According to them, he and Kirstein approached Strawinsky in 1936 about a new ballet and gave him free rein with the subject matter (‘We told him to write anything he wanted. He decided on a dance with playing-card characters, a poker-game ballet’). Strawinsky saw it differently. He made a ballet, developed and composed by him, available to the Americans and did not receive specifications from the choreographer, something which agrees with Balanchine’s and Mason’s version of the story; he relinquished the staged performance rights only for a year and only for the United States. Furthermore, he did not see himself under any obligation to Kirstein and the American Ballet. The correspondance on the matter seems to recognise that Jeu de cartes was not technically speaking a commissioned work, rather an approved work that the Americans received in place of the actual contract and which they continued to finance. The explanation of the financial matters is therefore part and parcel of the details of these connections. Balanchine died in 1983 and had theoretically still been able to have an impact on the volume of correspondance published by Craft. –

On 18th December 1936, Strawinsky departed for the United States after he had demanded absolutely decisively that the list of contents which Strecker regarded as unfitted for staged performances be printed in the front of the score and the piano reduction. –

Jeu de cartes is Strawinsky’s penultimate pre-war composition written in Europe. On the occasion of the première in New York, Strawinsky met up with the Blisses, and was invited to the Dumbarton Oaks Manor. On this occasion he received the commission for a chamber music work for a special reason. The completion of this was his final European work. The subsequent symphony was completed in America.

Significance: After The Fairy’s Kiss, Jeu de cartes is Strawinsky’s second work that uses collage processes, even though Strawinsky himself did not much like this name, and he rather referred to it as a symphonic work. While The Fairy’s Kiss should challenge as a serious piece and in its pathos and imitation of style, it rather achieves the opposite: it is wit that is predominant in Jeu de cartes and makes the game of the ballet into a genre.

Situationsgeschichte

a) General

Strawinsky laid out the scenario, which he assigned to him self and not to Nikita Magalov, in a separate table and rejected Willy Strecker’s opinion that the table be printed in the piano reduction. Strawinsky did not understand Strecker’s opposition to this, because the lack of any indication of the content would have been linked to a lack of any meaningful choreographical connection. Without Strawinsky’s indications for the scenario, which he then finally succeeded to be print at least in the piano reduction, a choreographical and musical analysis would have been virtually impossible and the intended wit of this score would have remained concealed. Strawinsky predicted this correctly and for the same reason insisted upon a series of programmatic titles for the concert version. Perhaps Craft wanted to oblige Balanchine many years after Strawinsky’s death when he sided with Strecker and he found it astounding that Strawinsky was able to restrict himself into such a rigid programme despite many corrections. As an example of the almost paternal nature of the nearly redundant great choreographer Balanchine, Craft cites the five bars of figure 33 in which the joker has to leave the stage. For Strecker, it was presumably not the problem of the restricted choreography, but motives followed which he could not express. Strawinsky followed the trilingual explanation of the scenario, with a quatrain from a fable by La Fontaine, the source of which he does not name. This is the thirteenth fable of the First Book ‘Les loups et les brebis’, in which the story, which ends catastrophically, of a peace-treaty between sheep and wolves is moralized. The representatives of both sides have settled a truce between the two groups of animals. The wolves put up their offspring as hostages and the sheep do likewise with their guard dogs. Time passes and the small wolves become big wolves. The previously small wolves contact the large wolves, and while the little wolves attack the sheep, the large wolves kill the sleeping guard dogs. One cannot make peace with someone if he does not intend to keep the contract, says La Fontaine. This quatrain is fitting, as it expresses the idea that war must be waged unremittingly against Evil because the rule of peace is good but cannot destroy evil if the enemies do not keep their word. It has no motific link to the scenario of the ballet fable, meaning that it can be readily interpreted as anti-fascist, although it could have been directed with even greater right against the Communist regime; fascism was at the time pretending to try to forge a connection with the Soviet Union in its efforts towards a truce. Regardless of whom it was intended to represent - Hitler or Stalin or a private background figure or even someone else - Strecker must have feared that he himself would be damaged along with Strawinsky because the quatrain played on Germany’s circumstances at the time. Strecker’s efforts with Strawinsky and the dissemination of this ballet were overshadowed by the political agitation, the successful end of which marked the point at which Strawinsky decided never to return to Europe.

b) Political environment

Strawinsky was subsequently targeted by the National-Socialist machinations of the Third Reich. Strawinsky, who was definitely no Communist or Bolshevist and apart from Mandelstam who was married in his descendants and was murdered by the Germans on account of his lineage, had no prejudice against the Jews and, until shortly before the outbreak of war, was inclined towards fascist organizational structures, which were spreading out from Italy (it was joked at the time that Strawinsky supported Mussolini because the trains now ran on time in Italy). He received help from personalities such as Willy Strecker or Richard Strauss, seen in the short term as well-intended, but in the long term as doubtful. These two, their muted cooperation with National Socialism notwithstanding, were economically ruined and would even have put their lives on the line. Strauss declared, it is believed without investigation, how it really was in the publication of a newspaper interview in the Fränkischer Kurier of 28th November 1934, that Strawinsky was enthused by Adolf Hitler’s ideas, and Strecker asked Strawinsky on 29th March 1933 to prepare a precautionary aria statement with which he, should matters turn for the worse, could defend Strawinsky. In this letter, Strecker tells Strawinsky about the situation in Germany, the beginning of the militant anti-Jewish campaign and the activities of the cultural struggle in which Hindemith and Strawinsky had become embroiled; Hindemith was ‘only’ (as Strecker writes) seen as a cultural Bolshevist but Strawinsky was also regarded as a Jew, which many believed because of his appearance. Strawinsky in fact completed a kind of Aryan proof, and this short document of 14th April 1933, shortly before Easter, is illuminating for the biography of his ancestry. From it, we learn the high positions of state in which his ancestors were active, apart from his father, who was the court singer to the emperor and a member of the Russian hereditary aristocrats. There we learn about the Catholic Polish Counts of Soulima Strawinsky, who had been Russian aristocracy over one hundred years ago: his wife, a born aristocrat of the House of Nossenko, his mother, a born aristocrat from the house of Kholodovsky, who was the Premier Minister under Tsar Nicolas the First and, we would say today, was also inside the Ministries of Economy and Agrictulture (in the 19th century, it was also usual in Germany that the Minister President oversaw an actual department, especially as he had no authority to define the political guidelines). Both grandmothers were aristocratic orthodox Christians; one of them was the daughter of a minister under Tsar Alexander I. Strawinsky ended the letter with the assertion that he did not want to return to Russia because he did not know what he would do there. He detested all Communists and Marxists, whom he called detestable Soviet monsters, and the same went for all liberals, democrats and atheists, between whom he made no difference. It is noticeable that in this desperate action of self preservation, which provoked the shocked Trotzkyist Ramuz, who was sympathetic to the Communists, to send a letter in German to the “Dero very well born”, every anti-Semitic reference was missing. It never became necessary in the end because Strecker had disproved the argument that Strawinsky was a Jew. On the other hand, Strawinsky had only written in his letter what was genealogically correct and in fact reflected his convictions. He did indeed hate all Communists, Marxists and Bolshevists who had deprived him of his belongings, estate and home, and he did not like atheists. This was why he later demonstrated in America against Shostakovich when Shostakovich played the role of cultural ambassador on behalf of Stalin’s government. Strawinsky however was neither anti-Semitic like Koussevitsky or Diaghilev nor a Semitophile, and Strecker, who championed the Jewish violinist Dushkin so much that he made Strawinsky write a violin concerto for him, had been forced by the corrupt processes of political power at the time into a role in which he did not feel happy. Strawinsky did not interfere with this issue. Strecker made an effort for Strawinsky as previously did Koussevitsky. He organized concert tours and performance dates (in which Strecker of course gained financially from his share of the profits) and did everything he could to keep Strawinsky out of the political mire in both interests. He did not succeed. At first, there were simple logistical benefits. The Russische Musikverlag, who were based in Berlin, could resist the political pressure no longer and were about 1937 not able to operate any more. Strawinsky therefore had no named publisher apart from Schott and with the Jeu de cartes , Strecker gained a work suitable for both stage and concert performance that promised much success and which he championed with all the means available to him. Strawinsky however had long been a controversial figure in the politically militant German press. Even Hindemith as a German with his almost classical opera Mathis der Mahler could not stand against his opponents, and so Strawinsky as a Russian with a rather light ballet about a game stood even less chance. The publishers (including the musical magazins, musical writers and critics) who supported the New Music of the time, were put in a difficult position. The equation: Atonality, Judaism, Jazz, Strawinsky, Hindemith, cultural Bolshevism, degeneracy = New Music may seem primitive, but it did not allow any exceptions. The letters which were written, the meetings that took place, the actions which were attempted, could offer material for study to every depth psychologist. Everyone knew what was going on, everyone knew what the situation was, but it was expressed only as suggestion. Strecker could not conceal his political inclinations and he did not share the cultural politics of the Rhinelander and propaganda minister, Dr. Goebbels. It was not possible to reconcile the one with the other and it resulted in attempted acts of self preservation without ever fooling the people in power in Berlin. The bastions for performance fell away one after the other and Strecker could not prevent it. A chamber for the music of the Reich, which went ahead against Hans Rosbaud, because he was not a German but an Austrian(!), was under no restrictions and Strawinsky’s explanation for the honour of Rosbaud of 21st September 1936 made the issue even worse due to the role that Strawinsky had been playing in Germany in the meanwhile. –

The performances of Jeu de cartes were artistically successful, but the work could only be used as a demonstration in good evenings of dance alongside pieces that were already famous. Strecker therefore tried to calm Strawinsky yet again and saw a glimmer of light on the cultural horizon where dark clouds had been for a long time. In the middle of 1936, the Jewish Cultural Coalition, which was tolerated at that time, wanted to perform Strawinsky’s Soldier’s Tale in Berlin and elsewhere. Strecker was strongly against this because he feared consequences for himself, the publishing house and Strawinsky. Since he could not forbid the matter without losing face abroad, he played the hard-nosed business man and specified the performance fees as being one hundred marks, a very large sum at the time, and one which he knew that the Jewish society could not raise. The society wanted to get in contact with Strawinsky in order to negotiate more favourable financial conditions. Strecker gave them an address in Buenos Aires and advised Strawinsky not to answer the letter or to send it on to him (Strecker). In the meanwhile, Strecker fell for another disastrous trick. He reported the Jewish society to the Berlin Chamber of Reichsmusik without whose permission the performance could not take place. Should the chamber give permission for the performance, he wrote to Strawinsky, it would be exclusively for Jews and would go unnoticed publicly. Strawinsky agreed with Strecker in a letter of the 1st August 1936. He feared he would lose more ground if he were to help the Jewish Cultural Society and so delayed his answer. Strecker’s report to the Reichsmusikkammer and his hope that the performance would be forbidden was an error with severe consequences. They had long decided that both Hindemith and Strawinsky should be culturally liquidated, and what could serve this purpose better than a performance of Strawinsky’s music by a Jewish Cultural Society! The permission came through promptly and Strecker now recommended to Strawinsky that he should behave generously and lower the costs. In the exhibition “Entartete Musik” in Düsseldorf, which went unnoticed for the most part, Strawinsky found himself once again viewed as a cultural Bolshevist. His horror knew no limits in the case of his ballet The Firebird which was being played throughout Germany, and he engaged the French businessman André François Poncet to make an intervention at the German government which was received ungraciously. Strecker’s letters to Strawinsky from this period are interesting documents from the point of view of the psychology of the time. Strecker placated, pacified and implored Strawinsky to stay calm; the exhibition would not be a success (that was right; the exhibition was boykotted in Düsseldorf) and things would go back to normal, while any strong protest would make matters even worse. In 1939, Strawinsky lost his mother and his wife, and the family fell apart, not least on account of Vera Soudeikina. With the start of the Second World War, Strawinsky did not return to Europe from a recital tour in the United States. In Hollywood, he was pleased with the victories of the Red Army over the German forces and the taking back of Paris by the Allies, and he remained in America until his death (except his frequent journeys).

Choreography: Balanchine’s choreography is regarded in the ballet literature as anaemic and Cranko’s later choreography, which emphasises the wit of the score more strongly, is preferred. The reason for Balanchine’s unresponsiveness may possibly lie in the fact that the proscription in the choreographical originals was too narrow, with Strawinsky acting as both composer and choreographer at the same time. When he came to New York, the staging was already far advanced. They had settled on Mediaeval tarot cards which did not suit Strawinsky’s taste because they did not correspond to his music, and so they were changed.

Versions: All the required formats, such as the orchestral score, piano reduction and pocket score were published in the first half of 1937. The library of the British Museum received its copy of the pocket score on 30th April 1937 and its copy of the piano reduction on 3rd May. Strawinsky recorded the receipt of his piano reduction in early 1937. The piano editions were firstly stapled and then in the following editions sewn. The rounding of the corners, which is found certain libraries (Leipzig Music Library >5:5783<), is not original but a result of later binding The conductor’s score was also completed but was never officially for sale; a few copies ended up in private ownership. According to the disc number which is different from the disc number of the pocket score, it was first printed as one of the ballet editions. The copy from Basel which is from Strawinsky’s private property, bears the printed stamp No 16, and another copy, also privately owned, but not in Basel, bears no number. Strawinsky considered it unworkable to create a suite of the ballet since its density would render any shortened suite meaningless, and the orchestral score was similarly designed for both stage and concert performance. The music was at least 25 minutes in length, not so long that it needed shortening. Strawinsky however did accept the idea of having self-standing excerpts, as long as this was made clear at the performance with an indication to that effect along with the title of the ballet and the selected fragment. In any case, the marketing in France, which was run by Eschig, was not done well. When Monteux and Paris Radio enquired after the material, they were informed by Eschig that there were only two scores in existence, one in New York, and the second in Stresa[?], where the work was being played at the time (!). We know of this event because Strawinsky complained about it to Strecker in a letter of 27th November 1937 from Sancellemoz, but he was not too unhappy because otherwise Monteux would have beaten him to his own performance on Paris Radio (6/12/1937). The distribution of the ballet in Germany took place on a restricted scale as a result of the political situation. Schott produced 600 copies of the piano reduction and 1000 copies of the pocket score and had a pleasing sales result for 1938 with 220 copies of the piano reduction (17 free) and 254 copies of the pocket score (95 free) sold. In 1939 however, sales slumped drastically to 17 copies of the piano reduction and 95 of the pocket score. Several printed copies were not sold during the war and were only released for sale after 1945.

Print runs: The piano reductionof the ballet Jeu de cartes was published in 3 editions during Strawinsky’s lifetime (print runs: 6th April 1937: 600; 10th September 1951: 300; 5th April 1966: 300). A 4th edition was printed after Strawinsky’s death (print run: 06/05/1975: 300) and this increased the entire number of piano reductions printed in the 20th Century by 300 up to 1,500 copies. 2 editions of the conducting scorewith the edition number 56 were printed during Strawinsky’s lifetime, running to 450 copies in total (print runs: 10th April 1937: 150; 25th April 1969: 300). Between Strawinsky’s death and the end of the century, there was in an additional 3rd edition in 1993 running to 141 copies (print run: 05/02/1993: 100 [135 + 6]). The sets of parts was part of the hire material and was never available to purchase. The string parts were printed on 31st July 1937 (300 for the first violins, 300 for the seconds, 200 for the violas, 200 for the violoncelli and 300 for the double basses), 4th March 1965 (150 for the first violins and 120 for the violas), 16th July 1965 (150 for the second violins, 100 for the violoncelli), 19th August 1965 (180 for the double basses), from Strawinsky’s death up to the end of the century 03/12/1971 (200 for the first violins, 200 for the seconds, 150 for the violas), and on 26/10/1973 (100 for the ‘celli). There were 4,900 of the pocket scoresproduced in 6 editions during Strawinsky’s lifetime, and between his death and the end of the century, another 1,300 copies were printed in a further 2 editions (print runs: 15th April 1937: 1,000; 30th march 1950: 500; 13th June 1952: 1,000; 5th April 1962: 800; 25th August 1966: 800; 19th October 1970: 800 and 20/02/1976: 800; 27/07/1981: 500). In comparison with the pocket score, sales of the piano reductions fared worse later. New versions of the pocket score were recorded for 1956/57 with 500 copies and 1961/62 and 1966/67, each with 800 copies; the piano reduction was reprinted in 1965/66 with only 300 copies. In between the middle of 1956 and the middle of 1961, Schott sold at least 550 pocket scores but only a maximum of 70 piano reductions, while between the middle of 1964 and 1969, there were over 700 pocket scores and approximately 100 piano scores sold. A complete set of the hire material with corrections and performance instructions survived in Strawinsky’s estate.

Historical recordings: 19th-21th February 1938 in the Singakademie(Berlin) with the Berliner Pphilharmonikern under the direction of Igor Strawinsky; 13. March 1964 in Cleveland with the Cleveland Orchestra under the direction of Igor Strawinsky.

CD edition: II-1/27-29 (recording 1964).

Autograph: Paul Sacher Stiftung Basel.

Copyright: 1937 by B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz; 1965 renewed.

Editions

a) Overview

59-1 (1937) FuSc; Schott Mainz-Leipzig; 101 pp. 2°; B·S·S 34888 .

    59-1Straw ibd. [without annotations].

59-2 (1937) VoSc; Schott Mainz; 45 pp. 4°; B·S·S 34890.

    59-2Straw ibd. [without annotations].

59-2[51] [1951] ibd.

59-2[66] [1966] ibd.

59-3 (1937) PoSc; Schott Mainz-Leipzig; 101 pp. 8°; B·S·S 35036; 3511.

    59-3Straw ibd. [with annotations].

59-3[50] [1950] ibd.

59-3[66/70] [1966 or 1970] ibd.

59-4 [1967] FuSc; Schott Mainz; 103 pp. 2°; 34888; 56 .

b) Characteristic features

59-1 Igor Strawinsky / Jeu de cartes / Ballet en 3 donnes / Partition d'Orchestre / [vignette] / B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz // JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en 3 donnes / A CARD GAME [#] DAS KARTENSPIEL / Ballet in 3 Deals [#] Ballett in 3 Runden / par / Igor Strawinsky / [asterisk] / Partition d'Orchestre / [*] / B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz und Leipzig / [°] / Schott & Co. Ltd., London W. 1, 48 Great Marlborough Street / Editions Max Eschig, Paris [#] Assoc. Music Publ. Inc., New York / 48 Rue de Rome [#] 25 West 45 th Str. NY. City / Printed in Germany – Imprimé en Allemagne // [no text on spine] // (Full score sewn 24 x 31 (2° [4°]); 101 [101] pages + 4 cover pages black on grey grained [front page with orange-coloured publisher’s emblem oval 3.4 x 4.7 lion with wheel of Mainz in its paws and writing encircling >* PER MARE ET TERRAS *<, 3 empty pages] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend >Distribuzione dell' orchestra< Italian + duration data [>circa 33 minuti<] Italian] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes<; author specified 1st page of the score without pagination [p. 1] below movement title >Première donne< flush right centred >Igor Strawinsky / 1936<; legal reservations 1st page of the score above type area next to and below 1. line title head flush left centred >Aufführungsrechte / vorbehalten< below type area flush left >Copyright 1937 by B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz<; plate number >B·S·S 34888<; production indication p. 101 flush right as end mark >Stich u. Druck von B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz<) // [1937]

° Dividing horizontal line of 8.7 cm, i.e. column width.

* The Basel copy, which comes from Stravinsky’s private ownership, has a stamp >N o16< at this place, while another copy, also from his private ownership, but not in Basel, does not have a number. The same is true for the copy (bound subsequently) in the American Memorial Library in Berlin, the cover pages of which were [as usual] removed.

59-1Straw

Front page next to and below >Partition d’Orchestre< flush right manually written >Igor Strawinsky / Printemps 1937<; copy Nr. 16; no annotations.

59-2 JEU DE CARTES* / BALLET / en / 3 DONNES / [Bild] / IGOR STRAWINSKY / A CARD GAME [#] DAS KARTENSPIEL / BALLET [#] BALLETT / IN 3 DEALS [#] IN 3 RUNDEN / EDITION SCHOTT 3296 // IGOR STRAWINSKY / JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes / A CARD GAME [#] DAS KARTENSPIEL / Ballet in three deals [#] Ballett in drei Runden / Les mouvements scéniques réalisés par l'auteur / en collaboration avec M. Malaïeff / [asterisk] / Couverture et croquis par Théodore Strawinsky / B. SCHOTT'S SÖHNE, MAINZ / Schott & Co. Ltd. [#] Editions Max Eschig [#] Ass. Music Publishers, Inc. / London [#] Paris [#] New York / Printed in Germany – Imprimé en Allemagne // (Vocal score stapled 22.9 x 30.2 (4° [4°] ); 45 [44] pages + 4 cover pages black on beigegrey [ornamental front cover title a full-page picture with a Joker, half-covered by three playing cards, in the middle, 2 empty pages, empty page with publisher’s emblem rectangular centre centred 2.4 x 3.8 lion with wheel of Mainz in its paws and writing encircling >B · SCHOTT'S SÖHNE / PER MARE / MAINZ UND LEIPZIG / ET TERRAS<] + 7 pages front matter [title page, page mit legal reservations above centre centred >All rights reserved / Tous droits réservés / Aufführungsrechte vorbehalten<, legend >Distribuzione dell’ orchestra< Italian + duration data >circa 23 minuti< Italian, summary >Argument< French, >Summary< English + >Inhaltsangabe< German, a page with picture of the scenery and 2 figurines [>As< + >Rois<] signed > Th. S.<, a page with 4 figurines [>Dames<, >Valets<, >Joker<, >Petites Cartes<] gez. > Th. S.<] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements >IGOR STRAWINSKY<** production date >963<]; title head >JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes<; author specified 1st page of the score without pagination [p. 2] below deal title >Première donne< flush right centred >Igor Strawinsky / 1936<; legal reservations 1st page of the score above title head flush left centred >All rights reserved / Tous droits réservés / Aufführungsrechte vorbehalten< below type area flush left >Copyright 1937 by B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz<; plate number >B·S·S 34890<; production indication p. 45 flush right as end mark >Stich u. Druck von B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz<) // (1937)

* Printed as a rounded arch.

** Y as ornaments letter. In French, the library material is advertised without edition numbers, the compositions for sale are advertised with edition numbers behind fill character (dotted line) >Feu d’artifice. Fantaisie pour grand orchestre, op. 4 / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre <en location> / Partition d'orchestre <format de poche>° 3464 / Réduction pour Piano à 4 mains (O. Singer)° 962 / Scherzo fantastique. Fantaisie pour grand orchestre / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre <en location> / Partition d'orchestre <format de poche>° 3501 / Concerto pour Violon et orchestre / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre <en location> / Partition d'orchestre <format de poche>° 3504 / Reduction°°° pour Violon et Piano° 2190 / Concerto per due Pianoforti soli° 2520 / L’oiseau de feu. <Der Feuervogel>. Ballet / PIANO°°°° / Berceuse° 2547 / Ronde des princesses° 2548 / Transcription par Guido Agosti: / Danse infernale, Berceuse et Finale° 2378 / VIOLON ET PIANO°°°° / Nouvelles Transcriptions par l'auteur et S. Dushkin: / Berceuse° 2186 / Scherzo° 2280 / Transcriptions par l'auteur: / Prélude et Ronde des princesses° 2080 / Berceuse° 2081 / [dividing line spanning 3 dots horizontal centred] / Partition de Piano° 3279 / Jeu de cartes, Ballet / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre <en location> / Partition d'orchestre <format de poche>° 3511 / Partition de Piano° 3296 / Pastorale. Chanson sans paroles / Chant et Piano° 2295 / Chant et 4 instruments à vent° Partition 3399 / Parties <en location> / Violon et Piano <par Strawinsky et Dushkin>° 2294 / Violon et 4 instruments à vent <Oboe, Corno inglese, / Clarinetto in la, Fagotto>° Partition°° 3313 / Parties°°° / Belowschale. Russische Bauernlieder, 4 Chöre für gleiche Stimmen. / Beim Heiland von Tschigissy – Herbst – Der Hecht – Freund Dicksack<. Die Niederlassungsfolge ist nächst Mainz mit Leipzig-London-Paris-New York [° fill character (dotted line) ; °° no fill character (dotted line) ; °°° original spelling; °°°° centre].

59-2Straw

Front page: above rounded arch in the frame flush right manually written >IStrawinsky / Printemps / 1937<; no annotations.

59-2[51] JEU DE CARTES* / BALLET / en / 3 DONNES / [picture] / IGOR STRAWINSKY / A CARD GAME [#] DAS KARTENSPIEL / BALLET [#] BALLETT / IN 3 DEALS [#] IN 3 RUNDEN / EDITION SCHOTT 3296 // IGOR STRAWINSKY / JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes / A CARD GAME [#] DAS KARTENSPIEL / Ballet in three deals [#] Ballett in drei Runden / Les mouvements scéniques réalisés par l'auteur / en collaboration avec M. Malaïeff / [asterisk] / Couverture et croquis par Théodore Strawinsky/ B. SCHOTT'S SÖHNE, MAINZ / Schott & Co. Ltd. [#] Editions Max Eschig [#] Ass. Music Publishers, Inc. / London [#] Paris [#] New York / Printed in Germany – Imprimé en Allemagne // (Piano score sewn 23.2 x 30.2 (4° [4°]); 45 [44] pages + 4 cover pages black on grey beige [ ornamental front cover title a full-page picture with a Joker, half-covered by three playing cards, in the middle , 2 empty pages, empty page mit publisher’s emblem oval centre centred 2.8 x 3.5 lion with wheel of Mainz in the frame in its paws and containing text in bottom half >PER MARE< [#] >ET TERRAS< left and right] + 7 pages front matter [title page, empty page, legend >Distribuzione dell’ orchestra< Italian + duration data >circa 23 minuti< Italian, contents >Argument< French, contents >Summary< English + >Inhaltsangabe< German, a page with picture of the scenery and 2 figurines [>As< + >Rois<] signed. > Th. S.<, a page with 4 figurines [>Dames<, >Valets<, >Joker<, >Petites Cartes<] signed > Th. S.<] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements > IGOR STRAWINSKY<** production date >24<]; title head >JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes<; author specified 1st page of the score without pagination [p. 2] below deal title >Première donne< flush right centred >Igor Strawinsky / 1936<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright 1937 by B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz<; plate number >B·S·S 34890<; production indication p. 45 flush right as end mark >Stich u. Druck von B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz<) // (1951)

* Printed as a rounded arch.

** In French, the library material is advertised without edition numbers, the compositions for sale are advertised with edition numbers behind fill character (dotted line) >Concerto per due Pianoforti soli° 2520 / Feu d'artifice. Fantaisie pour grand orchestre, opus 4 / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3464 / Réduction pour Piano à 4 mains (O. Singer)° 962 / Scherzo fantastique. Fantaisie pour grand orchestre / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3501 / Symphonie en Ut pour grand orchestre / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3536 / Concerto pour Violon et orchestre / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3504 / Réduction pour Violon et Piano° 2190 / Jeu de cartes. Ballet / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3511 / Partition de Piano° 3296 / L'oiseau de feu. Ballet / Partition de Piano° 3279 / Piano: / Berceuse° 2547 / Ronde des princesses° 2548 / Danse infernale, Berceuse et Finale (Transcription par Guido Agosti)° 2378 / Violon et Piano: / Berceuse (Transcription par l'auteur)° 2081 / Prélude et Ronde des princesses °°°Transcription par l'auteur)° 2080 / Berceuse (Transcription par l'auteur et Dushkin)° 2186 / Scherzo (Transcription par l'auteur et Dushkin)° 2280) / Pastorale. Chanson sans paroles / Chant et Piano° 2295 / Chant et 4 instruments à vent° [#] Partition°° 3399 / [#] Parties (en location) / Violon et Piano (par Strawinsky et Dushkin)° 2294 / Violon et 4 instruments à vent° [#] Partition°° 3313 / [#] Parties (en location) / Belowschale. Russiane Bauernlieder. 4 Chöre für gleiche Stimmen. / Beim Heiland von Tschigissy – Herbst – Der Hecht – Freund Dicksack< fill character (dotted line) ; °° no fill character (dotted line) ; °°° missing left bracket original].

59-2[66] JEU DE CARTES* / BALLET / en / 3 DONNES / [Bild] / IGOR STRAWINSKY / A CARD GAME [#] DAS KARTENSPIEL / BALLET [#] BALLETT / IN 3 DEALS [#] IN 3 RUNDEN / EDITION SCHOTT 3296 // IGOR STRAWINSKY / JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes / A CARD GAME [#] DAS KARTENSPIEL / Ballet in three deals [#] Ballett in drei Runden / Les mouvements scéniques réalisés par l'auteur / en collaboration avec M. Malaïeff / [asterisk] / Couverture et croquis par Théodore Strawinsky/ B. SCHOTT'S SÖHNE, MAINZ / Schott & Co. Ltd. [#] Editions Max Eschig [#] Ass. Music Publishers, Inc. / London [#] Paris [#] New York / Printed in Germany – Imprimé en Allemagne // (Vocal score sewn 23 x 30.1 (4° [4°]); 45 [44] pages + 4 cover pages black on grey-beige [ ornamental front cover title a full-page picture with a Joker, half-covered by three playing cards, in the middle , 2 empty pages, empty page with publisher’s emblem oval centre centred 2.8 x 3.5 lion with wheel of Mainz in the frame in its paws and containing text in bottom half >PER MARE / ET TERRAS< left and right] + 7 pages front matter [title page, empty page, legend >Distribuzione dell’ orchestra< Italian + duration data >circa 23 minuti< Italian, summary >Argument< French, summary >Summary< English + >Inhaltsangabe< German, page mit Bühnenbildzeichnung und 2 Figurinen [>As< + >Rois<] gez. > Th. p.<, page mit 4 Figurinen [>Dames<, >Valets<, >Joker<, >Petites Cartes<] gez. > Th. S.<] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements > IGOR STRAWINSKY<** production date >24<]; title head >JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes<; author specified 1st page of the score without pagination [p. 2] below deal title >Première donne< flush right centred >Igor Strawinsky / 1936<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright 1937 by B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz<; plate number >B·S·S 34890<; production indication p. 45 flush right as end mark >Stich u. Druck von B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz<) // [1966]

* Printed as a rounded arch.

** In French, the library material is advertised without edition numbers, the compositions for sale are advertised with edition numbers behind fill character (dotted line) >Concerto per due Pianoforti soli° 2520 / Feu d'artifice. Fantaisie pour grand orchestre, opus 4 / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3464 / Réduction pour Piano à 4 mains (O. Singer)° 962 / Scherzo fantastique. Fantaisie pour grand orchestre / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3501 / Symphonie en Ut pour grand orchestre / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3536 / Concerto pour Violon et orchestre / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3504 / Réduction pour Violon et Piano° 2190 / Jeu de cartes. Ballet / Partition d'orchestre et Parties d'orchestre (en location) / Partition d'orchestre (format de poche)° 3511 / Partition de Piano° 3296 / L'oiseau de feu. Ballet / Partition de Piano° 3279 / Piano: / Berceuse° 2547 / Ronde des princesses° 2548 / Danse infernale, Berceuse et Finale (Transcription par Guido Agosti)° 2378 / Violon et Piano: / Berceuse (Transcription par l'auteur)° 2081 / Prélude et Ronde des princesses °°°Transcription par l'auteur)° 2080 / Berceuse (Transcription par l'auteur et Dushkin)° 2186 / Scherzo (Transcription par l'auteur et Dushkin)° 2280) / Pastorale. Chanson sans paroles / Chant et Piano° 2295 / Chant et 4 instruments à vent° [#] Partition°° 3399 / [#] Parties (en location) / Violon et Piano (par Strawinsky et Dushkin)° 2294 / Violon et 4 instruments à vent° [#] Partition°° 3313 / [#] Parties (en location) / Belowschale. Russische Bauernlieder. 4 Chöre für gleiche Stimmen. / Beim Heiland von Tschigissy – Herbst – Der Hecht – Freund Dicksack< [° fill character (dotted line) ; °° no fill character (dotted line) ; °°° missing left bracket original].

59-3 IGOR STRAWINSKY / Jeu de cartes / Ballet en 3 donnes / [vignette] / EDITION SCHOTT / 3511 // JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en 3 donnes / A Card Game [#] Das Kartenspiel / Ballet in 3 Deals [#] Ballett in drei Runden / par / Igor Strawinsky / [asterisk] / Partition d'Orchestre / B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz und Leipzig / [°] / Schott & Co. Ltd., London W. 1, 48 Great Marlborough Str. / Editions Max Eschig, Paris, 48 Rue de Rome / Associated Music Publishers Inc., New York, 25 West 45 th Str. NY. City / Printed in Germany – Imprimé en Allemagne // [no text on spine] // (Pocket score sewn 0.9 x 13.7 x 18.7 (8° [8°]); 101 [101] pages + 4 cover pages black on greygrained [front cover title with orange-coloured publisher’s emblem oval 1.8 x 2.1 lion with wheel of Mainz in the frame in its paws and writing encircling >PER MARE [#] ET TERRAS<, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >Schott’s Studienpartituren zeitgenössischer Musik<* production date >778<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend Italian + duration data [>circa 23 minuti<] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements >Igor Strawinsky<** production date >963p<]; title head >JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes<; author specified 1st page of the score without pagination [p. 1] below deal title >Première donne flush right centred >Igor Strawinsky / 1936<; legal reservations 1st page of the score next to title head flush left centred >Aufführungsrechte / vorbehalten< below type area flush left >Copyright 1937 by B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz<; plate number >B·S·S 35036<; production indication p. 101 flush right as end mark >Stich u. Druck von B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz<) // (1937)

° Dividing horizontal line of 8 cm, i.e. column width.

* Compositions are advertised in three columns without edition numbers under the (underlined) headline > Kammermusik< from >Badings, Henk< to >Windsperger, L.<, amongst these >Strawinsky , Igor / Ragtime<; under the (underlined) headline > Orchesterwerke<from >Albeniz, I.< to >Wunsch, Hermann<, amongst these >Strawinsky, Igor / Feuerwerk (Feu d'artifice) / Scherzo fantastique / Feuervogel (L'oiseau de feu) / Konzert in D für Violine und / Orchester / Suite I für kleines Orchester / Suite II für kleines Orchester<; under the (underlined) headline > Gesang m. Kammer-Orch.< from >Falla, Manuel de< to >Strawinsky, / Pribaoutki (Scherzlieder) / Wiegenlieder der Katze / Pastorale für Sopran, Oboe, / Engl. Horn, / Klarin. u. Fagott<; under the (underlined) headline > Opern und Ballette< from >Falla, Manuel de< to >Wagner, Richard<, amongst these >Strawinsky, Igor / Die Geschichte vom Soldaten / Reinecke / Jeu de cartes<.

** In French, the library material is advertised without edition numbers, the compositions for sale are advertised with edition numbers behind fill character (dotted line) >Feu d’artifice. Fantaisie pour grand orchestre, op. 4 / Partition d’orchestre et Parties d’orchestre (en location) / Partition d’orchestre (format de poche)° 3464 / Réduction pour Piano à 4 mains ( O. Singer)° 962 / Scherzo fantastique. Fantaisie pour grand orchestre / Partition d’orchestre et Parties d’orchestre (en location) / Partition d’orchestre (format de poche)° 3501 / Concerto pour Violon et orchestre / Partition d’orchestre et Parties d’orchestre (en location) / Partition d’orchestre (format de poche)° 3504 / Réduction pour Violon et Piano° 2190 / Concerto per due Pianoforti soli° 2520 / L’oiseau de feu (Der Feuervogel), Ballet / PIANO°°° Berceuse° 2547 / Ronde des princesses° 2548 / Transcription par Guido Agosti:/ Danse infernale, Berceuse et Finale° 2378 / VIOLON ET PIANO°°° / Nouvelles Transcriptions par l'auteur et S. Dushkin:/ Berceuse° 2186 / Scherzo° 2250 / Transcriptions par l’auteur:/ Prélude et Ronde des princesses° 2080 / Berceuse° 2081 / ____** / Partition de Piano° 3279 / Jeu de cartes, Ballet / Partition d’orchestre et Parties d’orchestre (en location) / Partition d’orchestre (format de poche)° 3511 / Partition de Piano° 3296 / Pastorale. Chanson sans paroles / Chant et Piano° 2295 / Chant et 4 instruments° Partition 3399 / Parties (en location) / Violon et Piano (par Strawinsky et Dushkin)° 2294 / Violon et 4 instruments à vent (Oboe, Corno inglese, Clarinetto in la, Fagotto / [#] Partition° 3313 / Parties°° / Belowschale. Russische Bauernlieder. 4 Chöre für gleiche Stimmen / Beim Heiland von Tschigissi /* Herbst /* Der Hecht /* Freund Dicksack<. The following places of printing are listed: Mainz-Leipzig-London-Paris-New York [° Distanzpunkte; °° without Editionsnummer; °°° centre; * slash original; ** dividing horizontal line of 0.7 cm.].

59-3Straw

Strawinsky’s copy is signed and dated by hand >IStrawinsky / I937< on the right of the outer title page above and next to the publisher’s emblem; the first back page of the cover contains a glued-in summary of the choreography that has been written by typewriter >JEU DE CARTES / [dividing line] / Ballet en trois Donnes / [3 stars in the shape of a delta 3 Sterne in Delta-Anordnung] / I-ère Donne / Musique d’introduction / Pas d’action / Danse du Joker / Petite Valse / 2-ème Donne / Musique d’introduction / Marche / Variations – des quatre Reines / [#] du Valet de Coeur / [#] et Coda / Reprise de la Marche et / Danse d’ensemble / 3-ème Donne / Musique d’introduction / Valse / Presto (Combat des Piques / [#] et des Coeurs) / Danse finale (Triomphe des / [#] Coeurs) / [3 Sterne in Delta-Anordnung] / La musique de ce ballet / se jour sans interruption.<.

59-3[50] IGOR STRAWINSKY / Jeu de cartes / Ballet en 3 donnes / [vignette] / EDITION SCHOTT / 3511 // JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en 3 donnes / A Card Game [#] Das Kartenspiel / Ballet in 3 Deals [#] Ballett in drei Runden / par / Igor Strawinsky / [asterisk] / Partition d'Orchestre / B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz und Leipzig / Schott & Co. Ltd., London W. 1, 48 Great Marlborough Str. / Editions Max Eschig, Paris [#] 48 Rue de Rome / Associated Music Publishers Inc., New York, 25 West 45th Str. NY. City / Printed in Germany – Imprimé en Allemagne // (Pocket score sewn 13.5 x 18.3 (8° [8°]); 101 [101] pages + 4 cover pages black on light grey [front cover title mit light orange-coloured publisher’s emblem oval 1.8 x 2.1 lion with wheel of Mainz in the frame in its paws and containing text in bottom half >PER MARE< [#] >ET TERRAS< left and right, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >Schott’s Studienpartituren<* production date >45<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend >Distribuzione dell’ orchestra< Italian + duration data [>circa 23 minuti<] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes<; author specified 1st page of the score without pagination [p. 1] below deal title >Première donne< flush right centred >Igor Strawinsky / 1936<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright 1937 by B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz<; plate number >B·S·S 35036<; French note of permission printed p. 101 below type area flush left framed >Visè par la D. d l’E. P. / Autorisé par la D. d. l’I / G. M. Z. E. O.<; production indication p. 101 flush right as end mark >Stich u. Druck von B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz<**) // [1948]

* Compositions are advertised in three columns without edition numbers under the framed heading >Kammermusik< from >Badings, Henk,< to >Windsperger, L.,<, amongst these >Strawinsky, Igor, Ragtime<, under the framed heading >Orchesterwerke< from >Albeniz, I.,< to >Wunsch, Hermann<, amongst these >Strawinsky, Igor, Feuerwerk (Feu d’artifice) /° Scherzo / fantastique /° Feuervogel / (L’oiseau de feu) /° Konzert / in D für Viol. u. Orch. /° / Suite I für kleines Orch. /° / Suite II für kleines Orch. /° / Concerto en mi b für Kam- / merorchester<, under the framed heading >Gesang m. Kammer-Orch .< from >Falla, Manuel de,< to >Strawinsky, Igor, Pribaoutki / (Scherzlieder) /° Wiegenlieder / der Katze /° Pastorale für / Sopran, Oboe, Engl. Horn, / Klarinette und Fagott<, under the framed heading >Oper und Ballette< from >Falla, Manuel de,< to >Wagner, Richard,<, amongst these >Strawinsky, Igor, Die°° Ge- / schichte vom Soldaten /° / Reinecke°° /° Jeu de cartes< [° slash original; °° original spelling].

59-3[66/70] STRAWINSKY / Jeu de cartes / Studien-Partitur / [vignette] / EDITION SCHOTT / 3511 // IGOR STRAWINSKY / Jeu de cartes / Ballet en trois donnes / Studien-Partitur / Edition Schott 3511 / B. Schott's Söhne · Mainz / Schott & Co. Ltd., London · B. Schott's Söhne (Editions Max Eschig), Paris / Schott Music Corp. (Associated Music Publishers Inc.), New York // [no text on spine] // (Pocket score sewn 0.8 x 13.7 x 18.7 (8° [8°] ); 101 [101] pages + 4 cover pages black on grey beige veined [front cover title mit dark orange-coloured publisher’s emblem oval 1.9 x 2.5 with wheel of Mainz in the frame and containing text in bottom half >PER MARE< [#] >ET TERRAS< left and right , 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >STUDIEN-PARTITUREN / Eine Auswahl zeitgenössischer Orchesterwerke<* production date >105<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend >Distribuzione dell’ orchestra< Italian + duration data [>circa 23 minuti<] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes<; author specified 1st page of the score without pagination [p. 1] below deal title >Première donne< flush right centred >Igor Strawinsky / 1936<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >© 1937 / © renewed 1965<; plate number >B·S·S 35036<; production indications 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Printed in Germany< p. 101 flush right as end mark >Stich u. Druck von B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz<) // [1966 or 1970]

* Compositions are advertised in three columns without edition numbers behind fill character (dotted line) from >CONRAD BECK< to >BERND A. ZIMMERMANN<, amongst these >IGOR STRAWINSKY / Scherzo fantastique° 3501 / Circus-Polka° 4274 / Feuerwerk, Fantasie°° 3464 / Symphonie in C° 3536 / Symphony / in three movements°° 4075 / Pas de deux / (Tschaikowsky)°°° 4409 / Der Feuervogel: / Suite 1945° 4420< [° fill character (dotted line) ; °° without fill character (dotted line) ; °°° fill character (dot) ].

59-4 STRAWINSKY / Jeu de cartes / Ballet en 3 donnes / Partition d'Orchestre / [vignette] / EDITION SCHOTT / 56 // IGOR STRAWINSKY / JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en 3 donnes / (1936) / Partition d'Orchestre / Edition Schott / 56 / B. SCHOTT'S SÖHNE · MAINZ / Schott & Co. Ltd., London · B. Schott's Söhne (Editions Max Eschig), Paris / Schott Music Corp. (Associated Music Publishers Inc.), New York / Printed in Germany // [no text on spine] // (Full score sewn 0.7 x 26.5 x 33 (2° [4°]; 103 [101] pages + 4 cover pages black on grey grained [front cover title mit brown yellow ovaler publisher’s emblem 2.7 x 3.5 with wheel of Mainz in the frame and containing text in bottom half >PER MARE< [#] >ET TERRAS< left and right, 3 empty pages] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend >Distribuzione dell' orchestra< Italian + duration data [>circa 33 minuti<] Italian] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >JEU DE CARTES / Ballet en trois donnes<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 3 below deal title >Première donne< flush right centred >Igor Strawinsky / (1936)<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >© B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz; 1937 / © renewed 1965<; Platten-Nummer [exclusively p. 103 as end mark flush right] >B. Schott's Söhne, Mainz 34888<) // [1967]


K Cat­a­log: Anno­tated Cat­a­log of Works and Work Edi­tions of Igor Straw­in­sky till 1971, revised version 2014 and ongoing, by Hel­mut Kirch­meyer.
© Hel­mut Kirch­meyer. All rights reserved.
https://kcatalog.org and https://kcatalog.net

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Das zeitgenössische Wagner-Bild, Siebter Band: Dokumente 1853

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