K018 The NightingaleDie Nachtigall
K18 Le* Rossignol**
Conte lyrique en trois actes de Igor Strawinsky et S. Mitousoff d’après Andersen*** – Соловей - Die Nachtigall. Lyrische Erzählung in drei Akten nach einem Märchen von Hans Christian Andersen von Igor Strawinsky und Stepan Mitussow – The Nightingale. Musical fairy tale in three acts after the story by Hans Andersen – L’Usignuolo. Racconto lirica in tre atti di Strawinsky e S. Mitousoff, da una fiaba di Andersen
* The omission of the definite article rests on a translation error by Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi.
** The use of a capitalized initial letter goes back to the original.
*** The autograph score uses Russian; the first printed edition gives the title only in French, not Russian, whereas the sung text appears in Russian and, beneath it, French.
Scored for: a) Characters: The Nightingale (soprano), The Cook (soprano), The Fisherman (tenor), The Emperor of China (baritone), The Chamberlain (bass), The Bonze (bass), Death (alto)°, Three Japanese Envoys (two tenors, bass), Courtiers (chorus) – Chorusses: femal chorus, male chorus, mixed chorus – Orchestra ( First edition ): Piccolo Flauto, 2 Flauti grandi, 2 Oboi, Corno inglese, 3 clarinetti (3° anche cl. basso), 2 fagotti, Contrafagotto (anche fag. 3°), 4 corni, 4 trombe, 3 tromboni, Tuba, Timpani, Batteria (Piatti, Tamburo militare, Triangolo, Gran cassa, Piatti antichi, Campanelle I e II, Tamburino, Tam-tam), Pianoforte, Celesta, 2 Arpe, Chatarra ad. lib. , Mandolino ad. lib. , Archi [Piccolo flute, 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, 3 Clarinets (3rd also Bass clarinet) 2 Bassoons, Contrabassoon (also 3rd Bass.), 4 Horns, 4 Trumpets, 3 Trombones, Tuba, Timpani, Percussion (Cymbals, Snare drum, Triangle, Big drum, Tambourine, Cymbales antiques, Glockenspiel I and II, Tam-tam), Pianoforte, Celesta, 2 Harps, Guitar ad libitum , Mandolin ad libitum , Strings]; b) Performance requirements: 2 Solo Sopranos, 1 Solo Alto, 3 Solo Tenors, 1 Solo Bariton, 3 Solo Basses, chorus: ad libitum chorus (8 sopranos, 8 contraltos), [four-part] men’s chorus (tenors and basses, each group subdivided into two), [twelve-part] mixed double chorus made up of two [six-part] choruses (sopranos, altos and tenors, each group subdivided into two) and four-part mixed chorus (soprano, alto, tenor, bass); orchestra: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, english horn, sopranino clarinet in D (= 2nd clarinet), 3 clarinets in B b and A (2nd clarinet = sopranino clarinet in D, 3rd clarinet = bass clarinet), bass clarinet in B b (= 3rd clarinet), 3 bassoons (3rd bassoon = contrabassoon), contrabassoon (= 3rd bassoon), 4 horns in F, high trumpet in D and E b (= 3rd trumpet), 4 trumpets in A (1st/2nd trumpets = trumpets in A and B b , 3rd trumpet = trumpet in A and B b and = high trumpet in D and E b , 4th trumpet = trumpet in A and C), 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, percussion* (2 glockenspiels, cymbales antiques, tambourine, side drum, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, suspended cymbals, tam-tam), piano, celesta, 2 harps, guitar ad libitum , mandolin ad libitum , 4 solo violins, 3 solo violas, 4 solo cellos, strings (1st violins**, 2nd violins**, violas**, cellos***, double basses****).
° In Russian, death is a feminine noun.
* 5 players.
** Divided in four.
*** Divided in eight.
**** Divided in two.
Voice types (Fach): The Nightingale: lyric coloratura soprano with heart and brilliant technique, range e flat ¢ – f ¢¢¢ ; The Cook: soubrette adept at parlando, f ¢ – a ¢¢ ; The Fisherman: lyric tenor with flexible top register, e – a ¢ ; The Emperor: lyric baritone with ability to play character parts, A – e flat ¢ ; The Chamberlain: character bass or buffo bass depending on the production concept, F sharp – d sharp ¢ ; The Bonze: buffo bass, F – c ¢ ; Death: lyric alto*, a flat – d ¢¢ .
* In Russian understanding the death is feminine nature [in German: Der Tod, die ‘ Tödin’ ].
Performance practice: According to the requirement, the voice of the Nightingale sounds from out of the orchestra pit.
Summary: Act One: The Fisherman in his boat sings his song and longs to hear a nightingale singing, as it does every night at this time. The voice of the Nightingale is heard. It addresses its song to the roses, bidding them wake up, but they still seem to be weighed down by the oppressive dew and to be weeping secret tears. The Chamberlain, Bonze, Courtiers and Cook enter in search of the Nightingale. They have been sent to invite it to sing to the Emperor. They do not know the Nightingale and have never seen it, so they initially mistake the lowing of the Fisherman’s calf and the croaking of frogs for the Nightingale’s singing, expressing their wonderment and delight at what they hear. On each occasion, the Cook enlightens them. Finally they hear the real Nightingale and invite it to sing for the Emperor. The Nightingale agrees and announces its willingness to go to the Emperor’s Palace, even though it can sing far more beautifully in the green forest. The messengers are well pleased as they would have been beaten if they had returned home empty-handed. The Fisherman ends his song. – Act Two: The second act begins with an entr’acte headed ‘Courants d’air’, or ‘Draughts’. The actual stage is hidden behind gauzes. To the accompaniment of gossip on the part of the fawning courtiers, preparations are being made for the Nightingale’s arrival. The Cook has become an important personage as it was she who recognized the Nightingale and who, to the others’ amazement, describes the little bird’s modest appearance. The gauzes now rise out of sight and reveal the magnificent Porcelain Palace whose owner, the Emperor of China, is solemnly borne in to the strains of the Chinese March. The Nightingale is already sitting on a long perch and at a sign from the Emperor begins its song (Song of the Nightingale). It moves the Emperor to tears and by way of thanks he confers on it the Gold Slipper. The Nightingale refuses: the Emperor’s tears are thanks enough. The ladies of the court begin to imitate the Nightingale’s trilling by filling their mouths with water, throwing back their heads and trying to trill. The courtiers find this delightful. Three Japanese Envoys enter with a mechanical nightingale as a gift for the Emperor. It is a modest replica of the real nightingale, which flies away unnoticed. The mechanical nightingale is wound up and starts to sing; but the Emperor finds its singing artificial and gestures to the Envoys to turn it off. He wants to hear the real nightingale and is dismayed to discover that it has gone. In his annoyance he banishes it from his kingdom while the mechanical bird is carried into his bedchamber and given a place of honour on his left-hand side. – Act Three: The third act takes place at night in the moonlit bedchamber of the dying Emperor, who lies in a large bed, at the head of which stands Death, wearing the Emperor’s crown and holding his sword and banner. At the end of the prelude, the Emperor hears ghostly voices heralding his impending death. He calls for his musicians to drown out the voices. They do not come. Instead of his musicians, the Nightingale returns however and starts to sing of the magic of the gardens, the radiance of the sky and the fragrance of the flowers. The bird sings so beautifully that Death itself begs it to continue. The Nightingale agrees on condition that Death returns the crown to the Emperor and in that way restores his life. Death consents. The Nightingale continues singing and Death leaves the Emperor’s bedchamber. Once again the Emperor wants to reward the Nightingale by conferring the highest honours on it, and once again it refuses. But it offers to return to the Emperor each night and sing for him from nightfall to morning. The courtiers return in a solemn procession, expecting to find the Emperor dead. But they find him alive, standing in the bright sunlight and wearing his ceremonial robes. He welcomes them. His courtiers fall to the ground. From outside we hear the voice of the Fisherman. With his greeting to the Nightingale both the act and the opera end.
Source: Strawinsky’s source was the fairy tale Nattergalen (The Nightingale) written in 1843 by Hans Christian Andersen. In it, Andersen depicts the confrontation between nature (the Nightingale) and artifice (the mechanical bird) against the wider background of a clash between living reality and the narrow-mindedness of the Biedermeier period. A number of the tale’s episodes may be interpreted autobiographically inasmuch as the Nightingale, like Andersen, is recognized in its own country only through reports from foreign parts. From a dramaturgical point of view, the subject matter was especially well suited to operatic treatment in that it is music, represented by the Nightingale, which is central to the plot and the starting point of the action. Strawinsky and Mitusov drew up the scenario with this particular aspect in mind, skilfully preparing the way for the Nightingale’s first scene by means of the scene with the Fisherman. Strawinsky undoubtedly chose Andersen’s fairy tale less for its cryptic conflict between nature and artifice than for the opportunities that it afforded not only for a wide range of exotic colours but also for his exploration of a theme that could be interpreted in terms of a substitute religion. Indeed, the clash between nature and artifice was played down by both authors and reinterpreted, even though it is clear from the composer’s correspondence with Alexander Sanin that he did indeed see the antithesis between the living and the mechanical nightingale as Andersen’s central theme. As its title indicates, the opera comprises lyrical, rather than dramatic, scenes, and the earliest scenario contains no hint of Andersen’s conflict. Here we read only about the Fisherman who, in the best classical tradition, introduces the Nightingale as something very special, followed by a reference to the bird’s singing, which is moving the Emperor to tears, and to a second scene in which the Emperor’s imminent death is prevented by the bird’s singing. Strawinsky created a parable of the power of music to triumph over death, while Andersen had written an allegory about the low level of culture on the part of the masses who react according to the dictates of fashion and who prefer inauthenticity and untruth to the genuine and the true, whereas it is only at the very end of a person’s life that the genuine and the true has any permanence. For Strawinsky, the Porcelain Palace was merely a descriptive motif, whereas for Andersen it was a symbol of an artificial and unnatural world manifested in the mechanical nightingale.
Strawinsky had certainly sought out Andersen’s fairytale due to the possibility for a variety of exotic colours and the ersatz-religiously interpreted thematic material, less for the cryptic conflict between naturalness and artificiality, which is not only overplayed by both authors, but reinterpreted; Strawinsky however, as the correspondence with Sanine indicates, did correctly see Andersen’s central theme as conflict between the living and the artificial Nightingale. Strawinsky’s opera is made up of, as the title says, lyrical, not dramatic scenes. The earliest scenario has survived and was published by Craft. It contains not even a suggestion of Andersen’s conflict. It is just about a fisherman who, in the classic way, makes the introduction, announcing the Nightingale with her song as something quite special, and then the little animal’s singing before the Emperor moves the latter to tears, and in a 2nd scene, there is the imminent death of the Emperor, which is prevented by the song of the Nightingale. Andersen’s conflict is sidelined entirely in favour of an example of the power of music, which can even conquer death. Andersen did not want to show the victory of music over death, but to give an example that in the last moments of human life, only the genuine and truthful matters. Andersen’s Emperor goes to pieces just as his court does before the magic of artificiality. There is much empty-headed prattle and babbling. Andersen dedicates almost a quarter of his story to this scene. More than this, the cult of artificiality leads to a complete loss of value. Until the Emperor, court and people grasp the un-beautiful as beauty and value in itself. Only the poor, unpresentable fisherman experiences the difference, without being able to put words to it. Andersen shifts appearance and reality in the direct meaning of these words. His Chinese people are natural to so little an extent that they themselves shower the Nightingale in a world of platitudes when they greet each other, in that they say “Naacht” and the other answers with “gal”, and untranslatable play on words, because in the Danish, “gal” also means “crazy”. In Andersen’s version, the scene also plays a part. Everything in this Imperial court is artificial. The Palace is made of porcelain, and one must move carefully inside it in order to avoid breaking anything; silver bells have been tied to the flowers. The Palace and the institution are as unnatural as its inhabitants, who carry on in a mannered and ornate language, swan about, always nodding their heads, but without being able to tell the difference between the mooing of the cow and the croaking of a frog, and they confuse both with the song of the Nightingale. The Emperor of Japan is much cleverer. It is he who sends the artificial Nightingale, but expressly with the warning that the artificial Nightingale of the Emperor of Japan is poor in comparison with the real Nightingale of the Emperor of China (which has been banished by the offended Emperor and replaced with a work of art). After many years, at the moment of death, the deception is revealed. The toadies have already chosen a new Emperor; the mechanical Nightingale no longer chimes because there is no one to wind it up; a personification of Death sits on the chest of the once-so-powerful man and has removed from him his insignias of his power, the crown, sabre and flag; in agony, his good and evil deeds appear before him – for the first time, nature and un-nature are separated. The banished real Nightingale comes back and sings so poignantly that Death asks her to keep singing and grants her request to give back to the Emperor his insignias in exchange for a small song. In Strawinsky and Mitussov’s version on the other hand, the Emperor interrupts the playing of the mechanical Nightingale because he notices the cerebral deception and grasps the difference between mechanistic reproduction and creative uniqueness. He brings the mechanical Nightingale into his bedchamber because the living Nightingale has flown away from him, and he believes himself betrayed and must make do with the artificial bird. The toadies, in Strawinsky’s version, lose their abysmal stupidity and thus create material for humorous stage effects. Even the naïveté of the poor, little kitchen maid, who every day brings food to her sick mother and must cover a large distance in doing so, but who is the only person in the court to have safeguarded her naturalness, to know the Nightingale, better: to be able to recognise the Nightingale, is downplayed. In Strawinsky’s version, it is no longer a child who is helped by her innocence, but a grown female cook who is boasting with her experience.
A Nightingale sings her song all night to the joy of a poor fisherman. The Nightingale is widely known throughout the land, but only the simple and poor people in the land know of her existence, a narrative sequence which overlaps with Andersen’s own biography (because Andersen only began to receive recognition in Denmark through foreign countries, especially Germany). The Emperor of China only learns of the Nightingale from foreign books and wishes to hear it in his court. The people of the court do not know about it. After they are threatened with a flogging, they find after a little searching and little kitchen maid, who knows where the Nightingale can be heard. They follow her into the forest, and she is so ignorant that she takes the mooing of a cow, and then the croaking of a frog for the song of the Nightingale. They then find the Nightingale thanks to the kitchen maid’s knowledge, and convey the Emperor’s invitation to come and sing for him to her. The Nightingale begins to sing immediately because it thinks the Emperor is amongst the listeners already present. The toadies from the court explain her mistake. She is prepared to come to the Palace although it is so much better to sing in the green. Her song moves the Emperor to tears while the ladies of the court, to the enchantment of the toadies, attempt to imitate the trills of the Nightingale by taking water into their mouths, bending their heads backwards and gargling out loud. The little Nightingale becomes the talk of the town and her name becomes a call of greeting. There then arrives a large package containing a mechanical Nightingale as a present from the Emperor of Japan. Her artificial song creates the same sensation as the song of the real Nightingale, with whom it is not possible to create a duet, and the latter flies away in a moment in which she is unwatched. When the Emperor becomes aware of this, he is furious and banishes the bird once and for all from his kingdom, thinking her ungrateful. In the meanwhile, the mechanical bird becomes a cultural focal point and is in the spotlight of palace life. Everyone seeks to imitate her series of notes, which are always the same. A separate science is created about it with learned, but incomprehensible books. The artificial bird, which can wave its jewel-adorned tail up and down so beautifully, always sings what is expected of it, and that is exactly what everyone loves about it, because with the real Nightingale, one never knew what was going to come out. Only the simple fishermen are unsatisfied. They sense that something is missing with the mechanical bird, even if they don’t expressly understand what it is. Then the mechanism breaks and proves to be irreparable. Only once in the year can the mechanical Nightingale be wound up, and even that seems too much. Five years pass. The Emperor is dying. Death sits on his chest and has taken from him his Imperial insignia to take it for himself: Crown, sword and flag. His good deeds and bad deeds appear to the Emperor in the form of small heads. He does not want to hear what they wish to say to him. He calls for musicians to sing over the song of the spirits, but they do not come. He calls for the mechanical Nightingale, which does not sing because there is no-one there to wind it up. And the court has already long chosen a new Emperor. In this moment of greatest need, the real Nightingale comes back and sings so wonderfully that even Death is moved and asks her to continue singing. The Nightingale consents provided that Death gives back to the Emperor his insignias, and with them his life. Death fulfils the conditions, but the song of the Nightingale fills Death with such longing for the green spaces of the cemetery, which are watered by the tears of the surviving relatives that he leaves the bedchamber of the Emperor like a fog. The next morning, the Emperor stands up rejuvenated and dresses himself. The Nightingale does not fulfil the Emperor’s wish to stay with him, but promises him to come back every night and to sing at his window, and to share with him the joyful and sad things that are happening in his kingdom. The only condition is that he should not say to anyone that he has a little bird that tells him everything.
Construction: Its individual sections each furnished with its own heading, Le Rossignol is a short Russian fairy-tale opera in three acts that could equally well be regarded as a one-act work in three scenes, with the first scene as a prelude to the two later ones and the second scene consisting of several distinct tableaux. The opening act begins with an orchestral introduction that looks forward to the combined image onstage of lightly moved water and a forest filled with the sound of birdsong that creates a Pan-like atmosphere. Soloistic woodwinds and horns rise up over an even movement of alternating intervals in the strings always gliding back down (violas, divided into 8 parts), while the soprano and alto parts intone tritone intervals, supporting the strings, with closed mouths. When the curtain rises, the fisherman in his boat begins his song. He sings about his work, interrupting his song with an anxious question about the Nightingale, and then transfigures her with a description of her wonderful song before ending with a shortened description of the moon.Hymnic in tone, the Fisherman’s song consists of a three-bar nucleus and a three-bar refrain which in terms of their literary and musical form may be analysed as two strophes and a coda in A–B–A1–B1 form. It already contains a pre-echo of the voice of the Nightingale in the upper instruments. The bird’s actual song is launched with a preparatory flute solo and a four-bar vocalise of a kind that Strawinsky had already used in his Pastorale. From a textual perspective, the song of the Nightingale is shorter than that of the fishermen, but musically they are both the same length. This passage, too, is hymnic in tone. Formally speaking, it falls into three sections, the initial vocalise being identical to the final one, thus producing the form A–B–C–B1–A. The brief middle section (21 3to 22 1) allows the singer time to recover and provides the Fisherman with an opportunity to express his sense of wonderment, which he does with an intonational formula similar to the Nightingale’s. A short orchestral introduction clatters hurriedly. The courtiers who have been sent out by the Emperor now arrive with the Chamberlain and the Bonze at their head under the leadership of the Cook, noisily beating their way through the forest to the strains of an agitated babble with individually characterized part-writing. The female cook enthuses about her Nightingale, who she amongst all the people of the court was the only one to hear. Whenever the Nightingale is mentioned, a Nightingale call appears in the orchestra. The lowing of the calf is merely hinted at by means of two glissandos in the unison cellos and double basses, while the croaking of the frogs is depicted by six chords on the oboe, english horn and the two clarinets in A. Both effects are subsumed within the general hubbub. The effect is subsequently strengthened by a combination of IV. and III. Horn. The members of the court are very enthusiastic, even imitating the glissando with rapturous wonder with Âîòú ñèëà (Language of platitudes, literally: “how wonderful” translated with a loss of characterisation as “how delightful”); the Chamberlain finds the singer Êàêà ñèëèùà (literally: “what power”, translated with a change of meaning as “what a beautiful singer”) and the Tsing-Pé-Bonze marvels at the power of the little bird. The Bonze keeps calling out the syllables ‘Tsing-Pé’, for which Strawinsky reserves a particular effect, the first syllable being declaimed on the upbeat to the accompaniment of the cymbals, while the second coincides with the main beat to the accompaniment of the bass drum. The Cook clears up the error, and then the game is repeated with the frogs. The croaking of the frogs is also characterised in a restrained manner, so that one does not understand at first why the courtiers are so enthusiastic. Strawinsky uses six instrumental sounds for this, composed chordally, the first oboe, cor anglais, and both A clarinets, with the oboe and cor anglais playing a small grace note before each chord. The Tsing-Pé-Bonze with his unavoidable cymbal and drum beat hears in it the bells of the pagoda, which Strawinsky underlines with harp and piano, which can only be heard here for two bars, and the Chamberlain compares the croaking even to a golden throat, which Strawinsky caricatures with three staccato notes in the tuba proceeding downwards. Once again, the Cook explains. The courtiers are becoming tearful because they know what is waiting for them if they return to the Emperor without having achieved anything. The Chamberlain, no less anxiously, promises the Cook the post of personal chef to the court and the right to see the Emperor eat, the highest of honours that can be bestowed upon a person in this situation and position. And then finally, the actual Nightingale can be heard, first anticipated in the solo flute, then with her voice out of the orchestra. In the meanwhile, the courtiers wonder at her simple appearance, but know what their task is and put themselves at the Nightingale’s service. Strawinsky mocks the mechanistic and spiritless flourishing chatter of stereotypical phrases of politeness with a correspondingly mechanistic voice part. The Nightingale is finally tracked down and settles on the Cook’s hand (its fluttering flight can be heard in the clarinets and bassoons), and everyone is clearly relieved: the one hundred strokes with a bamboo cane, mockingly articulated in the pizzicato violins and staccato solo winds, are no longer something they must fear. The act ends with the final part of the Fisherman’s Song. Dramaturgically, one can imagine this sequence of scenes as if the fisherman has worked throughout the entire act and continued singing, rowing on during the middle scenes and then returning. – The second act likewise opens with its own introduction, but this is played before the curtain as an independent entr’acte subtitled ‘Courants d’air’ (‘Draughts’ or ‘Breezes’). The music is of considerable expanse, lasting 14 figures (51-65). It describes the agitation and babble produced in the courtiers by the arrival of the Nightingale and the evening’s recital for the Emperor, with all its attendant preparations. This entr’acte is developed as a self-contained number and could equally well come from the choreographed scenes of Les Noces. The vapidity of the events unfolding onstage is characterized by means of antiphonal choruses and by a rhythmically angular linguistic flow that moves quickly in the declamatory manner of the new Russian school, with brief interjections of Russian melody in the style of folksongs and an unexpected glissando ending that creates a curious impression: a current of air, much ado about nothing, produced by the wind or by hot air. The next scene is entitled ‘Chinese March’. It is however more than just a March. The participants form themselves into a procession into the Imperial Palace for the ceremonial taking of their places. In the Chinese March, Strawinsky offers a concentrate of all the stylistic features that his contemporaries regarded as quintessentially Chinese, without it actually having to be Chinese: short steps within a quick-march beat, the use of cymbals and gong, a pentatonic melody with no chromaticisms, sustained ostinatos and clearly distinguished colours produced by split sounds. Unlike those in The Firebird and Petrushka, the scenes are two-dimensional, with no individual incidents singled out within the overall picture. The music depicts none of the many events that take place on the stage and that are described in elaborate detail. It is left, therefore, to the director to interpret the images as he or she thinks best according to the music, which provides no more than a series of episodes of ‘Chinese’ colour. The third scene consists of the entry of the Nightingale in front of the Imperial court and the dialogue between the songbird and the shocked Emperor. The style changes again. The coloratura melody of the ensuing Song of the Nightingale is intensely chromatic and at times appears to hover in space. The song begins and ends with a coloratura cadence. When the Nightingale converses with the Emperor, the coloratura writing is transferred from the vocal line to the solo flute and solo clarinet. The ladies-in-waiting are also affected by the impression left on the Emperor and, hence, his court by the Nightingale, and so they try to imitate its coloratura flourishes by gargling with water. The orchestra underlines this oddly ordinary sound with wind tremolandos and notes on the harps. The overbred courtiers, who were previously incapable of telling the difference between the singing of a nightingale and the croaking of frogs, are beside themselves with pleasure at this sound. Strawinsky uses unchromatic, bright-toned broken chords to caricature this whole episode and, with it, the lack of culture on the part of the courtiers and ladies-in-waiting. The entrance of the Japanese Envoys is less affected, but here too Strawinsky avoids a painterly approach to the text. The action of the mechanical nightingale – which has to be wound up, of course (the noise can be heard very clearly) – consists of a brief motoric repetition of the same primitive formulas moving up and down in the two oboes. Nor is any attempt made to depict the flight of the departing Nightingale – in this respect, too, the score is untypical of the young Strawinsky. The act ends with a fragmentary repeat of the opening Song of the Fisherman. The third act, like the second, begins with a prelude, a brief, relatively sombre character-piece that derives its thematic material from the following Chorus of Spectres and the Song of the Nightingale, adumbrating the conflict between life and death but for the present leaving the outcome unresolved. The motivic writing of the Chorus of Spectres contains a faint but audible echo of the opening of the Dies irae, the well-known sequence from the Catholic Mass for the Dead that many composers have chosen for its potent symbolism. In the scene in which the Nightingale reappears, the various elements that make up the action are not individually characterized but are simply declaimed within the linguistic flow of the Song of the Nightingale. The most disparate meanings are ascribed to the various melodic formulas. The solemn procession adopts the earlier march rhythm, but the Chinese local colour is now much less pronounced. The formulas heard in the english horn are familiar from The Rite of Spring. At the end of the opera we hear a thirteen-bar fragment of the song in which the Fisherman had earlier admired the Nightingale. In the course of it, the first oboe plays the same simple two-note formula sixteen times. Even without a diminuendo marking in the score, this ending conveys the impression of events slowly disappearing into the distance.
Larghetto Quaver = 92
(figure 21 up to the end of Figure 5 8]
Più mosso Crotchet = 60
(figure7 1 )
a tempo Quaver = 92
(figure 7 2)
(figure 7 2 )
Più mosso Crotchet = 60
(Ночной пейзажъ. Берегъ моря. Опушка лђса.
Бъ глубинђ сцсны рыбакъ въ челнокђ.)
Paysage nocturne, au bord de la mer. La lisière d'une forêt.
Au fond de la scène, le pêcheur dans sa barque.
Larghetto Quaver = 80
(figure 8 up to the end of Figure 9 9)
Più mosso Quaver = 88
(figure 10 1up to Figure 11 1)
Pochissimo meno mosso Crotchet = 40
(figure 11 2up to the end of Figure 12 6)
Larghetto Quaver = 80
(figure 13 up to the end of Figure 15 9)
Più mosso Quaver = 88
Andante Crotchet = 58
(figure 17 up to the end of Figure 18 4)
CОЛОВЕЙ (Голосъ въ оркестрђ.)
LE ROSSIGNOL (Voix dans l'orchestre)
(figure 18 1)
(figure 19 up to the end of Figure 24 6)
Più mosso Crotchet = 88
(figure 24 7up to Figure 26 4)
Входятиь: Камергеръ, Бонза, Придворные и Кухарочка.
Entrent: le Chambellan, le Bonze, les Courtisans et la Cuisinière.
(figure 26 12)
poco più accelerando sino all Crotchet = 116
(figure 26 5-9)
Molto moderato, quasi andante Crotchet = 58
(figure 27 up to the end of Figure 28 10)
Allegro Crotchet = 116
(figure 29 up to the end of Figure 34 8)
Sostenuto Crotchet = 84
(figure 35 up to the end of Figure 37 9)
Andante Crotchet = 58
Allegro Crotchet = 116
(figure 39 up to Figure 40 1)
Maestoso (alla breve) Halbe = 76
(figure 40 2up to the end of Figure 41 7)
Andante Crotchet = 58
(figure 42 up to the end of Figure 43 5)
Allegro Crotchet = 116
(figure 44 up to the end of Figure 46 7)
(Бонза и Камергеръ удаляются)
(Le Bonze et le Chambellan s'éloignent)
(figure 45 4)
(figure 45 10)
Molto meno mosso
Larghetto Quaver = 80
(figure 48 up to the end of Figure 50 7)
Rideau de tulle.
(figure 50 1)
Deuxième Acte [ Lécnâît ânîhît ]
Музыка этого антракта играется при спущенныхъ тюлевыхъ занађсахъ.
Pendant cet entr'acte, la scène est voliée par des rideaux de tulls.
Presto Crotchet = 144
(figure 51 up to the end of Figure 62 7)
Lento Crotchet = 56
Crotchet = 144
Molto meno mosso Crotchet = 80
Тюлевые занавђсы медленно подымаются
Les rideaux de tulle se levent lentement.
Crotchet = 76
(figure 66 up to the end of Figure 72 9)
Въ зтомъ мђстђ всђ тюли должны быть подняты
Ici les rideaux de tulle doivent avoir disparu.
(figure 67 8)
Фантастическій фарфоровый дворецъ Китайскго Императора.
Le palais de porcelaine de l'Empereur de Chine.
(figure 68 1)
Праздничное убранство. Множество фонариковъ. Торжествениое шествіе придворной знати. На авансценђ спиной къ зрителю стоитъ придворный лакей съ длиннымъ шестомъ на которомъ соловей.
Architecture fantaisiste. Decoration de fête, luminaires en abondance. Entrée solenelle des dignitaires de la cour. A l'avant-scene, dos au public, se tient un laquais de cour, portant une longue hampe, où est perché le rossignol.
(figure 68 2)
Triplet = dotted Crotchet
(figure 73 1)
Quaver = Quaver = Crotchet 116-120)
(figure 73 2up to Figure 76 8)
poco accel. Quaver = Quaver
(figure 76 9)
Quaver = Quaver a tempo
(figure 77 up to the end of Figure 78 12)
Quaver = Quaver del Tempo I (Marcia)
(Нђсколько слугъ торжественно вносятъ сидяoаго въбалдахинђ Китайскаго Императора.)
Des serviteurs portent triomphalement l'Empereur de Chine, assis dans sa chaise à baldaquin.
(figure 79 1)
(figure 80 1 )
(figure 80 2)
Semiquaver = Meno mosso
(figure 80 3-7)
Cлуги ставятъ балдахинъ съ Кит. Имп. на возвышеніе посреди сцены.
La chaise de l'Empereur est déposée sur une estrade au milieu de la scène.
(figure 80 3)
Poco meno mosso Quaver = 120
Императоръ жестомъ приказываетъ соловью начинатъ.
L'Empereur fait au Rossignol signe de commencer.
(figure 81 4)
CHANSON DU ROSSIGNOL
Crotchet = 66
M olto adagio Quaver = 46
(figure 83 up to the end of Figure 85 9)
Cadenza (tempo come rima cadenza) *
(figure 86 1)
a tempo Quaver = 46
(figure 86 2-5)
Sostenuto Quaver = 66
(figure 87 1-4)
Più mosso Quaver = 88
(figure 87 4-4up to the end of Figure 88 11)
Poco più mosso Crotchet = 76
Всђ дамы въ подражаніе соловю, набраъ изъ фарфоровыхъ чашечекъ воды въ ротъ, издаютъ зтотъ звукъ, откинувъ головы назадъ.
Toutes les dames, pour imiter le rossignol, se remplissent la bouche d'eau et rejetant la tête en arrière, s'efforcent de triller.
(figure 89 2)
Къ Кит. Имп. подходятъ три япоскихъ посла; двое впереди, третій сзади. Послђдній держитъ большую золотую шкатулку, на крышкђ которой сидитъ большая искусственная птица, искусственный Cоловей-даръ Императора Японскаго Императору Кигайскому.
Vers l'Empereur s'avancent trois envoyés Japonais: deux en avant ensemble; celui qui les suit porte une grande cassette d'or, sur le couvercle de laquelle se dresse un grand oiseau artificiel, un rossignol mècanique, cadeau de l'Empereur du Japan à l'Empereur de Chine.
(figure 90 1)
Larghetto Crotchet = 56
(figure 90 1-6)
Largo Crotchet = 40
(figure 90 7-15)
Vivace Halbe = 76
Первые два япон. посла разступаются. Къ Кит. Имп. подходятъ третій япон. посолъ съ Искусств. Cол. въ рукахъ.
Les deux premiers envoyés s'écartent, le troisième s'avance vers l'Empereur, et lui présente le rossignol artificiel.
(figure 91 1)
JEU DU ROSSIGNOL MÉCANIQUE
[Игра искусственнаго Cоловья]
Во время игры искусственнаго соловья настоящій соловей незамђтно исчезаетъ.
Pendant cette scène, le vrai rossignol disparaît sans être remarqué.
Moderato Crotchet = 60
(figure 92 up to the end of Figure 93 9)
Императоръ жестомъ прекращаетъ итру искуственнаго соловья.
L'Empereur, d'un geste, met fin au jeu du rossignol mécanique.
(figure 93 8)
Meno mosso Crotchet = 52 circa
(figure 94 1-3)
Императоъ, желая прослушать снова настоящаго соловья поворачиваетъ голову съ поднятой рукой въ его сторону, однако замђтивъ его отсутствоі съ недоумђнімъ обращается къ камергеру.
L'Empereur, qui veut entendre de nouveau le rossignol véritable, tourne la tête de son côté et lève la main. Voyant que l'oiseau n'est plus là, il se tourne, perplexe, vers le chambellan.
Der Kaiser, der die echte Nachtigall hören will, wendet den Kopf zur Seite und hebt die Hand. Als er den Vogel nicht mehr sieht, wendet er sich bestürzt an den Kammerherrn,
The Emperor, who wants to hear the real nightingale again, turns his head and points in the direction of the nightingale's perch. When he sees that the bird is no longer there, he turns perplexed to the Chamberlain.
(figure 94 1)
Più mosso Crotchet = 60
(figure 94 4)
Quaver = 108
(figure 95 1-7)
Tempo di "Marcia Chinese" Crotchet = 76
(figure 95 8-13)
Largo maestoso Crotchet = 60
(figure 96 up to the end of Figure 98 7)
Императоръ жестомъ приказываетъ начать шествіе. Императора несутъ. Всђ удаляются въ торжественномъ маршђ. Занавђсъ медленно опускается.
L'Empereur fait signe de former le cortège. On l'emporte. Tous sortent en procession triomphale. Le rideau s'abaisse lentement.
(figure 96 1)
Larghetto Quaver = 80
(figure 99 up to the end of Figure 100 9[Enchaînez forward to figure 101 Third Act])
Le voix du PÊCHEUR
(figure 99 3)
Con moto Quaver = 120
(figure 101 up to the end of Figure 105)
Maestoso Crotchet = 160
(figure 106 up to the end of Figure 107 7)
(figure 107 7)
Lento Quaver = 72
(figure 108 up to the end of Figure 112 8)
Покои во дворцђ Китайскаго Императора. Ночь. Луна. Въ глубинђ сцены опочивальня Китайскаго Императора. Гигантское ложе, на которомъ [#] лежитъ больной Императоръ, а на немъ сидитъ Cмертъ съ короной Императора на головђ, съ его саблей и знаменемъ въ рукахъ. Занавђсъ, отдђляюшая опочивальню отъ переднихъ покоевъ отдернута.
Une salle du palais de l'Empereur de Chine. Nuit. Clarté lunaire. Au fond la chambre de repos de l'Empereur, lit gigantique [#] où gît l'Empereur malade. A son chevet est assise la Mort, elle porte la couronne impériale, et s'est imparée du glaive et de l'étendard; le rideau qui sépare la chambre de repos des autres, est ouvert.
(figure 108 1)
Poco più mosso Sechzehntel = 120
(figure 113 up to the end of Figure 114 5)
Semiquaver = 96
Lento Crotchet = 60
(figure 116 up to Figure 123 2**)
poco rall. (figure 1120)
a tempo (figure 120 1)
Largo Quaver = 72
(figure 123 2up to the end of Figure 128 [With the insertion of a replacement figure 124 bis ***])
rit. (figure 124 2)
a tempo (figure 124 3)
La Mort disparaît
(figure 125 2)
Il commence à s'éclaircir
(figure 126 1)
Un poco meno mosso
Pianissimo Minim = 40-42
(figure 129 up to the end of Figure 132 8)
Придворные, считая Китайскаго Императора уже умершимъ, церемоніалнымъ маршемъ входятъ въ передніе покои дворца. Занавђсь, отдђляющая послђдніе отъ, опочивальни торжественно задерживается пажами съ противуположныхъ сторонъ.
Les courtisans pensant que l'Empereur est mort, entrent aux sons d'une marche solennelle et s'avancent vers la chambre de repos, dont des pages retiennent avec solomnité les rideaux fermées.
(figure 129 1)
Занавђсь раскрывается. Опочивальня залита солнцемъ. Китайскій Императоръ въ полномъ царскомъ убранствђ стоитъ посреди опочивальни. Придворные падаютъ ницъ.
Les rideaux de la chambre de repos s'ouvrent. La chambre de repos est baignée de soleil. L'empereur en grande tenue se tiend debout au milieu. Les courtisans tombent à terre.
(figure 132 2)
Quaver = 54 (più largo che sopra)
(figure 133 up to the end of Figure 134 12)
Занавђсъ медленно опускастся
Le rideau tombe lentement
(figure 133 1)
La voix de PÊCHEUR
* Figure 82 2is meant.
** In the new edition of the pocket score, the number of the figure 119 is missing.
*** Figure 124 is given twice: 124 = 8 bars; 124bis = 12 bars.
Corrections / Errata
Transcription (Dushkin) 18-7
1.) bar 61 (p. 6, 2nd system, bar 3) Violin: 1st demisemiquaver (2nd ligature) b b 2 instead of b2.
2.) bar 63 (p. 6, 3rd system, bar 1) Piano: the 4th note of the ligature has to read g1 (with bracket
3. Cadenza below system: the 6th (last) note) should be a b 2 [Violin: g#1] instead of a2.
5.) bar 82 (p. 7, last bar of the cadenza) Violin: last triplet note a b 1 instead of a1.
7.) Violin part, p. 3, last bar: 6th note before the end has to be read a b 2 instead of a2, 2nd note
flageolet a3 instead of flageolet a b 3.
Style: The first act is the work of the pre-Firebird Strawinsky, while the second and third reflect the composer’s musical language after Le Sacrerespectively during Les Noces. The result is two clearly disparate stylistic worlds inasmuch as Strawinsky’s style developed markedly between The Firebirdand The Rite. This explains why he used only sections of the second and third acts for his independent symphonic poem The Song of the Nightingale. The first act reveals links with Rimsky-Korsakov’s opera The Golden Cockerel as well as with Debussy’s Impressionistic treatment of the orchestra. A number of important passages in this act, including the Song of the Fisherman and the solo writing associated with the bird’s voice, could be taken from Rimsky’s opera with only minor rhythmic and intervallic changes. The chromaticisms of the Song of the Nightingale itself recall the music of Skryabin, while the cantabile writing points in the direction of popular French opera and the choral writing is influenced by Debussy’s Nuages. Other turns of phrase that are reminiscent of Debussy may perhaps be traceable to Mussorgsky, who in turn left his mark on Debussy’s musical language. In spite of its alienatingly Impressionistic peculiarities, the opening act still takes its place within the Russian musical tradition that was practised in St Petersburg and Moscow. In the case of such relatively clearly outlined scenes as the lowing of the calf and the croaking of the frogs, the situations onstage are less fully characterized than in Petrushka. In keeping with the work’s essentially lyrical starting point, the humorous elements in this act are played down even in the later revisions of 1920. To western ears, this act’s folksonglike, specifically Russian colour plays a subordinate role, even if there is an evident echo of Petrushka at one point. In short, this opening act creates the impression of a prologue to the second and third acts. By now, Strawinsky was no longer a mere copyist. Here the writing for soloists and chorus derives from the world of Les Noces. The way in which the situations onstage are now characterized reflects the composer’s experience of working on his three intervening ballets. Strawinsky’s typical humour now makes its presence felt onstage. Having experimented with the use of contrast in Petrushka, he was now able to apply that experience to the action and interaction between the genuine and the mechanical nightingale. The Chinese local colour, which had played virtually no part in the opening act, now becomes a stylistic feature of the work, and the work’s stageability is significantly affected: by embracing the chinoiserie that was popular at this time, Strawinsky laid the foundations for a magnificent staging with extensive and colourful images of a kind familiar from The Firebird and Petrushka but not from The Rite of Spring. At the same time he took over the scenes with the Nightingale and Fisherman from the first act and introduced them into the second and third as complexes involving repetition and reminiscence, thereby welding together all three acts.
Dedication: There is no authentic dedication, although according to Paul Collaer, the dedicatee was Stepan Mitusov.
Duration: 44 ¢ 55 ¢¢ . Act One: 16 ¢ 34 ¢¢ ; Act Two: 14 ¢ 48 ¢¢ [2 ¢ 12 ¢¢ (Courants d’air), 3 ¢ 38 ¢¢ (Chinese March), 3 ¢ 48 ¢¢ (Song of the Nightingale), 0 ¢ 40 ¢¢ (The Courtiers), 1 ¢ 03 ¢¢ (Three Japanese Envoys), 0 ¢ 59 ¢¢ (Action of the Mechanical Nightingale), 2 ¢ 28 ¢¢ (Conclusion)]; Act Three: 13 ¢ 33 ¢¢ [2 ¢ 49 ¢¢ (Prelude), 1 ¢ 18 ¢¢ (A Room in the Emperor’s Palace), 6 ¢ 59 ¢¢ (The Return of the Nightingale), 1 ¢ 09 ¢¢ (Solemn Procession), 1 ¢ 18 ¢¢ (The Recovery of the Emperor)].
Date of origin: The draft of the libretto is dated 3 April 1908. The earliest musical sketches were made in Ustilug between 29 November 1908 and 1 February 1909, and the rough version in sketch form was completed in Ustilug during the summer of 1909. The full score of Act I was completed in Ustilug in the autumn of 1909. A new scenario had been drafted by 27 March 1913 and was worked up into a new libretto between mid-May and December 1913. Act Two was completed after 4 November 1913, and Act Three probably not before early May 1914. (Strawinsky’s own date is 14/27 March 1914.) Acts Two and Three were written in Clarens and Leysin.
History of Origin: After it was established that the opera would be sung in Paris, London and Moscow (in Russian), Nicolas Struve organised a translation into French. A proposed translation into English fell through because the intended translator (Feiwel) worked too slowly in Struve’s opinion to complete the task by the deadline. A translation into German was not planned because, as he shared with Strawinsky in a letter dated 11th October, it would certainly not be beneficial to the later spread of the opera. Struve presumably gave up because the publisher had bad experiences with one-act operas that did not fill an entire evening. Le Rossignol was, strictly speaking, not an opera in 3 acts, but a one-act opera in 3 scenes that required an oversized, mammoth orchestra. This held the publishers enthusiasm within limits. The title pages of the original editions were printed in French-Russian (not Russian-French) so that the authorised original title, Le Rossignol , did not read соловей , whatever it may say on the autograph score. The French translation, as one would expect in the years before the First World War, was entrusted to the Marseille-born, polyglot journalist, music writer and translator of Greek origin, Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi (his first names were always shortened to M. D., and to M. in his letters), who had developed himself into a notable and in-demand personality in Paris in the period before the War. With the outbreak of the War, he was forced to leave France due to his country of origin. He went to England, married an English woman and gained English citizenship, but did not gain in London (unlike he did in Paris) a significance befitting his achievements. Strawinsky corresponded with the Strawinsky enthusiast in a friendly manner, even warmly. Calvocoressi, who had mastered the Russian language, had already translated texts for Rimsky-Korsakov and Strawinsky, and was looking forward to working on Strawinsky’s opera with impatience, as a letter dated 16th October 1913 to Strawinsky demonstrates. Calvocoressi received the first act shortly afterwards, as he had stopped pressing further in the next letter, dated 5th November 1913. The publishers confirmed with Strawinsky in a letter from Struve dated 14th November, that they had delivered the copies of the first act to Calvocoressi. It can also be seen from the correspondence that he had in his possession the 2nd act by 16th January 1914 at the latest, and by this time had already translated the 1st scene (meaning the 1st act). He confirmed this in an undated letter that must have been written before 16th January because he is excited and impatient in a postscript for the 2nd act to be sent to him. He confirmed receipt of the latter on 16th January 1914. There is nothing in the correspondence about the delivery of the translation of the 2nd and 3rd acts, but it would not have taken the linguistic genius Calvocoressi much time; Struve however was not entirely satisfied with the translation. Calvocoressi had produced the translation quickly, but in Struve’s opinion, not well. There were errors remaining in it. Struve was especially annoyed about the incorrect title (Rossignol instead of Le Rossignol), which, for a Frenchman, should not have crept in, as Struve wrote to Strawinsky on 6th June 1914 after the premiere. Even in Germany, one would know the considerable difference between Rossignol and Le Rossignol. All the translations taken on later also brought about comments. For the English premiere in 1914 in the Drury Lane Theatre, a separate translation was produced and published, so not connected with the piano edition. It was written by Basil T. Timotheyev and Charles C. Hayne. For the London performance in 1919, a translation by Edward Agate was used. Both translations were not used later in the revised editions, but were swapped out for Robert Craft’s translation, which was protected by copyright. A German translation was produced by Elizabeth Weinhold; this was also not used for the revised editions, but was replaced by a translation by A. Elukhen and B. Feiwel.
First performances: The opera received its first performance in Russian on 26 May 1914 in Paris at the Salle Garnier (Opéra), with Pavel Andreyev (Emperor) and Yelena Nikoleva* (Cook) from St Petersburg’s Maryinsky Theatre, Aureliya Dobrovolskaya (Nightingale) from Moscow’s Bolshoi Theatre, and with Yelisaveta Petrenko (Death), Alexander Varfolomeyev (Fisherman), Alexandre Belyanin (Chamberlain), Nicolas Gulayev (Bonze), Elisabeth Mamsina, Basile Charonov and Fedor Ernst (Japanese Envoys), the Moscow Opera Chorus and Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. The sets and costumes were designed by Alexandre Benois,** the choreographer was Boris Romanov, the director Serge Grigoriev and the conductor Pierre Monteux. The work was performed as an opera-ballet, each role being allotted to both a singer and a dancer. The dancers performed on the stage, while the singers were placed in the pit. This arrangement was retained in both London in 1914 and in St Petersburg in 1918. Strawinsky’s transcription of the work for violin and piano was performed in the Salle Pleyel in Paris on 8 December 1932 with Samuel Dushkin (violin) and the composer himself on the piano.
* According to other sources it was Marie Brian.
** According to other sources it was Alexandre Benois and Alexander Sanin.
Staging: The practice of doubling the roles and dividing them between singers and dancers that was adopted for the first performances of Rimsky-Korsakov’s The Golden Cockerel in 1909 was retained for The Nightingale. While the singers were placed in the pit, members of the ballet danced and mimed onstage. Within the circles in which he moved, Boris Romanov was well known for his masterly handling of crowd scenes and shifted the focus of attention to the processions, which were bathed in a magical blue light. Benois’ principal design was praised for its avoidance of spurious chinoiserie, which was then fashionable throughout the whole of Europe: instead, it was said to have captured genuine aspects of Chinese culture in terms of their contours and colours and to have breathed theatrical life into them.
Remarks: In Strawinsky’s opinion, the opera is one of his contentious compositions that can only be played by a good orchestra. He therefore replaced the planned performance in 1969 in Zürich with a performance of “Histoire du soldat” because he did not trust the orchestra of the Zurich Opera to accomplish the task.Strawinsky completed what was to become the first act in the summer of 1909 as an independent, essentially lyrical work. At that date he still had no clear idea of how to develop the piece. The death scene in which, according to the original scenario, music would have triumphed over the transience of life, was not taken any further because in the meantime Strawinsky had been commissioned to write The Firebird, Petrushka and finally The Rite of Spring and was already working on Les Noces when he returned to the opera in response to a new commission. It seems likely that the work would never have been taken up again if the Moscow stage director Alexander Sanin had not approached Strawinsky on 17 February 1913 with what was virtually a cry for help for a three-act stage work for the Free Theatre, which Sanin’s well-known boss, Konstantin Mardzhanov, had recently founded. After brooding on the matter for a time, Strawinsky agreed to help and drafted a new scenario that essentially includes all the details found in the finished work. But the new company went bankrupt even before Strawinsky had completed the third act. Diaghilev was left as the only impresario who might produce the work, but even he found himself in difficulties over Strawinsky’s uncharacteristic slowness in completing the opera (a slowness that attests to the effort required to see the project through to completion) and threatened to abandon the production. The third act suffered a particularly painful birth and was not completed until shortly before the first night: the conductor, Pierre Monteux, is said not to have seen the score until thirteen days before the first performance on 26 May 1914. The version that was published in 1923 differs considerably from the original, differences that affect the instrumentation and that left deep traces on the instrumental textures. Strawinsky presumably undertook these changes in 1917 and 1919. The Song of the Nightingale that is based on material from the second and third acts of the opera is an independent symphonic poem that stands on its own both structurally and orchestrally and for which Strawinsky made a number of changes to the scenario.
Situationsgeschichte: The claim that Rimsky-Korsakov used fairy-tale subjects as a way of escaping from the socio-political reality of his own day is historically untenable. Quite the opposite, in fact: he used fairy-tale subjects as the best way of depicting the political situation that had arisen following the uprisings of 1905. His late fairy-tale operas, from The Tale of Tsar Sultan to The Golden Cockerel, pack a powerful political punch, deriving their negative models from tsarist (mis)rule. Even though Rimsky-Korsakov was merely one of many Russian intellectuals who were working towards a more liberal and humane political reappraisal of the tsarist claims to power, rather than the outright overthrow of the Romanovs, he exerted a powerful influence on students with fairy-tale operas that the censors found it hard to attack. There were good reasons for the temporary suspension of his professorship. At the same time, his exploration of the language of musical exoticism, which so impressed Strawinsky, was not the result of an exclusively Russian development in the history of music. Rather, it stretches far back into the history of nineteenth-century European music, especially that of Germany and France, when composers were beginning to break free from the prevailing understanding of major and minor scales and to develop new melodic models. Gregorian modes, historical and artificial scales and, finally, the attempt to supplant the academicism associated with traditional tonality by non-European, exotic modes resulted in the emergence of Impressionistic devices that go back for the most part to Liszt. By the beginning of the twentieth century, exoticism had become an all-embracing, European movement that no composer was willing to ignore. Rimsky-Korsakov was part of this tradition and so, even more, was Strawinsky, who was additionally receptive to Impressionism and hence to forms of expression of which Rimsky-Korsakov would never have dared to think.
Significance: Strawinsky’s original idea for The Nightingale was grounded in that of a substitute religion, as were his settings of Konstantin Balmont’s meaningless symbolic, ecstatic lines in Zvezdoliki and the notion of a mysterious sacrifice in The Rite, a sacrifice that Strawinsky preferred to depict as an action transported to some nebulous faraway country. His temporary decision to leave the church created a vacuum that had to be filled. Wagner and his successors had popularized the idea of overcoming life and with music as substitue for religion and when Strawinsky decided after a certain amount of hesitation to return to Andersen’s fairy tale, in which the theme of conflict had already been watered down, he used music to weaken this idea yet further. In making a clear break between life and art a new Strawinsky is announced.
Effect: The performance of the opera was, astonishingly enough, inconsequential, which cannot only be ascribed to the fact that the War broke out shortly afterwards. After the premiere inParis , there was a further performance two days later on28th May 1914 . It was performed 4 times in total inLondon in theDrury Lane Theatre , this time under the baton of Emile Cooper, on 18th & 19th June and 14th &23rd July 1914 . Struve’s hope of finding a more sensitive and serious interest in the work in England than in France, entertained in a letter dated 16th June 1914, was shattered because in the latter place, it only provoked nice-sounding but empty words in reaction to it. InRussia , it was read differently. This was probably due to Diaghilev himself. He sent a telegram to Strawinsky in Salvan on16th July 1914 after the lastLondon performance, proclaiming the third and fourth performances a great success. He also expressed the hope that “Les Noces” would go the same way. The St. Petersburg newspaper wrote on 19th June (2nd July) 1914 that, on the back of the huge success in Paris and London, Strawinsky was planning an opera about ancient Rome, which could have been meant ironically or as the result of enthusiastic misunderstanding. Two years later, Diaghilev would demand from Strawinsky manifold changes in the opera, and especially ask him to remove boring parts. The perception of his contemporaries was similarly strangely divided. Long accustomed to thinking in groups and in schools, the music was too normal for those sympathetic to the uproar around Sacre , and they were annoyed by the comments made by opponents of the music of Sacre . The latter found the music of Le Rossignol heavenly in comparison to what Strawinsky had produced in his younger days, and this sort of understanding of Strawinsky suited each group as little as the other. A testimony for the confusion that Le Rossignol caused amongst the intellectual, modernist artistic programmers can be seen for example in the Rossignol manifest by a friend of Strawinsky, Futurist and former captain of the Italian Zouave regiment, Ricciotto Canudo. Canudo oversaw one of the many short-lived program sheets of the time, in which artistic theories were proposed and knocked down without proof, and wild, silver-tongued plays on words were made far from philosophical reality. His in places ironic and polemic article “Notre Esthétique . A propos du “Rossignol” d’Igor Strawinsky” was published on the 5th page of the last edition of the magazine “Montjoie” (No. 4-6, April-June 1914) and claimed that the opera bore witness to the entire flow of contemporary art which consisted of Cubism, Synchronism and Simultanism on the one side, and a nervous, prosodic arrhythmia on the other. The evident break in style on the part of Strawinsky was re- and misinterpreted as participation in the most various artistic trends of the time.
Versions: The vocal score went on sale on 16 June 1914 and was intended to be followed by a second edition within the course of that same summer. Both the cover and the title-page give the title only in French, not in Russian, this appears in capitals (СОЛОВЕЙ ) only on the first page of the score. The French title was in fact garbled by the omission of the article, an omission that remained uncorrected for years, in spite of complaints from the composer. The score included a note of ownership but no copyright notice and above all no copyright date. The printing costs amounted to 4886.35 marks. By the end of 1920 the Russian publisher had sold a total of 113 copies. By the end of 1938 the total was around 450 copies. In May 1952 Boosey & Hawkes reprinted this edition, but with the inclusion of the definite article and the copyright. The conducting score was published in 1923, together with a set of parts for hire. The pocket score, which did not appear until 1962, was published in an attractive imitation leather binding of a kind that Boosey & Hawkes used for several of Strawinsky’s works at this time. The Russischer Musikverlag had earlier sought to popularize the piece by publishing two transcriptions, bringing out an edition of the Chinese March by Théodore Szánto in 1922 and following this up in 1923 with the Introduction, the Song of the Fisherman and the Song of the Nightingale. By 1938 Szánto’s transcription had sold almost 800 copies, the later transcription almost 400. Neither edition was reissued by Boosey & Hawkes, although the Song of the Nightingale was later taken over into the Russian reprint of Strawinsky’s songs that appeared in 1968. In 1934, Strawinsky collaborated with Samuel Dushkin on an alternative arrangement of the Chinese March and the Songs of the Nightingale. One of a series of violin transcriptions that he and Dushkin prepared, appeared in 1934: Strawinsky received his file copy in November. By 1938 barely 100 copies had been sold, hardly a signal success. Not until after 1960 was the work as a whole reprinted. A reprint of the full score and vocal score was planned for the middle of 1961, by which date the older editions and performing material must have been barely usable any longer. Although the almost eighty-year-old composer was pleased at the work’s reappearance, he expressed his bitterness in a letter written from Santa Fe to Ernest Roth on 28 July 1961 at the fact that no progress had been made on publishing a corrected pocket score of The Rake’s Progress. For a decade, he went on, musicians interested in the score had been waiting for such an edition, whereas the operas of younger composers – he refers specifically to Henze at this point – were immediately made available in pocket scores by their publishers – in this case Schott. Boosey reprinted the old vocal score in 1961, removing the Russian text and replacing it with a German translation. The pocket score, as revised by Strawinsky, appeared in 1962 in both an ordinary and an imitation leather binding. The parts were available for hire. The vocal score was republished in Russia in 1968. The symphonic poem Chant du Rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) is something of a special case among the various concert works drawn from existing stage works: it is not really an adaptation of the opera but a newly composed piece made up of elements drawn from the opera.
Historical recordings: 29–31 December 1960, Washington, DC, sung in English, with Loren Driscoll (Fisherman), Reri Grist (Nightingale), Marina Picassi (Cook), Kenneth Smith (Chamberlain), Herbert Beattie (Bonze), Donald Gramm (Emperor), Elaine Bonazzi (Death), Stanley Kolk, William Murphy, Carl Kaiser (Japanese Envoys), Chorus (chorusmaster John Moriarty) and Orchestra of the Opera Society of Washington under the direction of Igor Strawinsky; 8 June 1933, Studio Albert, Paris, 1932 violin transcription of the Songs of the Nightingale and Chinese March with Samuel Dushkin (violin) and Igor Strawinsky (piano).
CD edition: VIII–1/1–13 (Washington recording).
Autograph score: The autograph full score was originally with Boosey & Hawkes in New York, the autograph vocal score with Boosey & Hawkes in London. Both are now in the British Library in London.
Copyright: 1922 for the Szánto transcription; 1923 for the conducting score; 1924 for vocal excerpts; 1934 for the violin transcription; 1947 copyright transferred to Boosey & Hawkes in London; 1956 for Hawkes & Son’s English translation, 1961 for the German translation; 1962 for Hawkes & Son’s revised version.
18-1 1914 VoSc; R-F; Russischer Musikverlag Berlin; 93 pp.; R. M. V. 241.
18-1 Straw ibd. [with annotations].
18-1   VoSc; Russischer Musikverlag Berlin; 93 pp.; R.M.V. 241.
18-2 (1922) Piano; Russischer Musikverlag Berlin; 11 pp.; R.M.V. 346.
18-3Td (1923) Libretto German; Russischer Musikverlag Berlin; 20 pp.; R.M.V. 405.
18-4  VoSc; R-F; Russischer Musikverlag Berlin; 93 pp.; R.M.V. 241.
18-5 (1923) FuSc; R-F; Russischer Musikverlag Moskau-Berlin; 119 pp.; R.M.V. 158.
18-5 Straw ibd. [with annotations].
18-6 (1924) Introduction, etc. Voice-Piano; R-F-G; Russischer Musikverlag Berlin; 17 pp.; R.M.V. 241 a.
18-7 1934 Violin-Piano [Dushkin]; Russischer Musikverlag Berlin; 15 pp.; R. M. V. 583/584.
18-7 Straw i Ibd. [with annotation s].
18-8 1941 Chant du Rossignol; Piano [Block]; Marks New York; 7 pp.; 11518-5; 11518.
18-9 Alb 1941 Chant du Rossignol; Piano [Block]; Marks New York; 5 pp.; 11518-5.
18-10 1952 VoSc; R-F; Russ. Musikverlag Berlin / Boos. & Hawk. London; 93 pp.; B. & H. 17187.
18-11 1961 VoSc; F-E-G; Russischer Musikverlag / Boosey & Hawkes London; 97 pp.; 17187.
18-12 1962 PoSc rev.; R-F-E-G; Edition Russe / Boos. & Hawk. London; 159 pp.; 18936; HPS 738.
18-13 1962 FuSc; R-F-E-G; Edition Russe / Boosey & Hawkes London; 159 pp.; B. & H. 18936.
18-14 1962 PoSc rev.; R-F-E-G; Edition Russe / Boos. & Hawkes London; 159 S.; 18936; HPS 738.
18-14 L 1962 Libretto; G.; Boosey & Hawkes London; HPS 738.
18-15Alb 1968 Песня соловья из оперы „Соловей“; Musyka Moskau; 4 pp.; 5823.
b) Characteristic features
18-1 IGOR STRAWINSKY / ROSSIGNOL / CHANT ET PIANO / „ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE" BERLIN–MOSCOU–ST.PETERSBOURG // IGOR STRAWINSKY / ROSSIGNOL / CONTE LYRIQUE / EN / TROIS ACTES / DE / I. STRAWINSKY ET S. MITOUSOFF / D'APRÈS / ANDERSEN / TRADUCTION FRANÇAISE DE / M. D. CALVOCORESSI. / RÉDUCTION POUR CHANT ET PIANO / PAR L'AUTEUR / TOUS DROITS D'EXÉCUTION RÉSERVÉS. /ПРАВА ИСПОЛНЕНІЯ СОХРАНЯЮТСЯ. / СОБСТВЕННОСТЬ ДЛЯ ВСЂХЪ СТРАНЪ / 1914 / PROPRIÉTÉ DE L'ÉDITEUR POUR TOUS PAYS / РОССІЙСКАГО МУЗЫКАЛЬНАГО [#*] ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE / ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВА [#*] (RUSSISCHER MUSIKVERLAG G. M. B. H.**) / БЕРЛИНЪ – МОСКВА – С. ПЕТЕРБУРГЪ [#*] BERLIN – MOSCOU – ST. PETERSBOURG / LEIPZIG – LONDRES – NEW-YORK – BRUXELLES BREITKOPF & HÄRTEL /*** MAX ESCHIG PARIS / R. M. V. 241 // (Vocal score with chant [library binding] 27 x 34.2 (2° [4°]); sung text Russian-French; 93  pages + 4 cover pages black on light grey [front cover title in ornamental feather frame, 3 empty pages] + 2 pages front matter [title page in ornamental feather frame, empty page] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >СОЛОВЕЙ. [#] LE ROSSIGNOL.<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 3 below movement title >>ВСТУПЛЕНІЕ. [#] INTRODUCTION< flush right centred >>Игоъ Стравинскiй. / Igor Strawinsky.<; legal reservation without Copyright 1st page of the score between movement title and author specified flush left >Tous droits d'exécution réservés.< below type area flush left >Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H., Berlin. Moskau. St. Petersburg.< flush right >Eigentum des Verlags für alle Länder.<; plate number >R. M. V. 241<; end of score dated p. 93 >Clarens 1914.<; production indication pp. 93 as end mark flush right >Stich und Druck von C. G. Röder G.m.b.H. Leipzig.<) // 1914
* Publisher’s emblem spanning three lines 0.9 x 1 sitting woman playing cymbalom.
** G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the G. and M.
*** Slash original.
Strawinsky’s copy contains annotations with pencil.
18-1 IGOR STRAWINSKY / ROSSIGNOL / [°] / CHANT ET PIANO / „ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE" BERLIN–MOSCOU–ST.PETERSBOURG // IGOR STRAWINSKY / ROSSIGNOL / CONTE LYRIQUE / EN / TROIS ACTES / DE / I. STRAWINSKY ET S. MITOUSOFF / D'APRÈS / ANDERSEN / TRADUCTION FRANÇAISE DE / M. D. CALVOCORESSI. / [°°] / RÉDUCTION POUR CHANT ET PIANO / PAR L'AUTEUR / [°°°] / TOUS DROITS D'EXÉCUTION RÉSERVÉS. / ПРАВА ИСПОЛНЕНІЯ СОХРАНЯЮТСЯ. / СОБСТВЕННОСТЬ ДЛЯ ВСЂХЪ СТРАНЪ / [#] PROPRIÉTÉ DE L'ÉDITEUR POUR TOUS PAYS / РОССІЙСКАГО МУЗЫКАЛЬНАГО [#*] ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE / ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВА [#*] (RUSSISCHER MUSIKVERLAG G. M. B. H.**) / БЕРЛИНЪ – МОСКВА – С. ПЕТЕРБУРГЪ [#*] BERLIN – MOSCOU – ST. PÉTERSBOURG / LEIPZIG – LONDRES – NEW-YORK – BRUXELLES BREITKOPF & HÄRTEL /*** MAX ESCHIG PARIS / R. M. V. 241 // (Vocal score with chant [sewn] 26.7 x 33.5 (2° [4°]); sung text Russian-French; 93  pages + 4 cover pages black on light grey [front cover title in ornamental feather frame, 3 empty pages] + 2 pages front matter [title page in ornamental feather frame, empty page] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >СОЛОВЕЙ. [#] LE ROSSIGNOL.<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 3 below legal reservation flush right centred >Игоъ Стравинскiй. / Igor Strawinsky.<; legal reservations without Copyright 1st page of the score between movement title >ВСТУПЛЕНІЕ. [#] INTRODUCTION.< and author specified flush left >Tous droits d'exécution réservés.< below type area flush left >Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H., Berlin. Moskau. St. Petersburg.< flush right >Eigentum des Verlags für alle Länder.<; plate number >R. M. V. 241<; end of score dated p. 93 >Clarens 1914.<; production indication pp. 93 as end mark flush right >Stich und Druck von C. G. Röder G.m.b.H. Leipzig.<) // 
° Dividing horizontal line of 2.4 cm.
°° Dividing horizontal line of 1.8 cm.
°°° The copy in what was formerly the Prussian State library in Berlin >DMS 188124< contains at this point flush right inside the decorative feather frame a round ø 2cm publisher’s stamp >Geschenk des Verlages< [>Gift of the publishers<].
* Publisher’s separating emblem spanning three lines 0.9 x 1 sitting woman playing cymbalom.
** G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the G. and M.
*** Slash original.
18-2 IGOR STRAWINSKY/ MARCHE CHINOISE / TIRÉE DU CONTE LYRIQUE / „ROSSIGNOL” / TRANSCRIPTION POUR PIANO / PAR / THÉODORE SZÁNTÓ / [°] / [vignette] / PROPRIÉTÉ DE L'ÉDITEUR POUR TOUS PAYS / ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE / (RUSSISCHER MUSIKVERLAG G. M. B. H.*) / FONDÉE PAR S. ET N. KOUSSEWITZKY / BERLIN MOSCOU LEIPZIG NEW-YORK / POUR LA FRANCE ET SES COLONIES: MUSIQUE RUSSE, PARIS, 3 RUE DE MOSCOU / POUR L'ANGLETERRE ET SES COLONIES: THE RUSSIAN MUSIC AGENCY, LONDRES W. I, 34 PERCY STREET / [°°] // (Edition not sewn 26.5 x 33.6 (2° [4°]); 11  pages creme without cover + 1 page front matter [title page in ornamental feather frame with publisher’s emblem 1 x 1.2 sitting woman playing cymbalom] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements >LES ŒUVRES / D’IGOR STRAWINSKY<** production date >1<]; title head >Marche chinoise / tirée du conte lyrique / „Rossignol“<; authors specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 2 above title head centre >Igor Strawinsky< [°°°] below title head flush right >Transcription par Théodore Szántó<; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H. Berlin. / (Edition Russe de Musique) / Copyright 1922 by Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H. Berlin.< flush right >Propriété de l'éditeur pour tous pays<; plate number >R.M.V. 346<; production indication p. 11 flush right as end mark >Stich und Druck von C. G. Röder G.m.b.H., Leipzig.<) // (1922)
° Dividing horizontal line of 8.8 cm.
°° The (re-bound) copy in the then Prussian Library >DMS 193696< to Berlin contains underneath the titles on the inside right a round, red stamp ø 2cm >Geschenk des Verlages< [>Gift of the publishers<].
°°° Between the author’s/authors’/composer’s name and the title heading, there is a decorative, horizontal dividing line .
* G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the G. and M.
** Compositions are advertised laid out >PÉTROUCHKA (BALLET) / PARTITION DE POCHE / RÉDUCTION POUR PIANO À QUATRE MAINS PAR L’AUTEUR / „TROIS MOUVEMENTS DE PÉTROUCHKA“. / TRANSCRIPTION POUR PIANO-SOLO PAR L’AUTEUR / ROSSIGNOL (CONTE LYRIQUE) / RÉDUCTION POUR CHANT ET PIANO PAR L’AUTEUR / „MARCHE CHINOISE“. TRANSCRIPTION POUR PIANO-SOLO / [#] PAR THÉODORE SZÁNTÓ / „CHANT DU ROSSIGNOL“. (POÈME SYMPHONIQUE) / PARTITION DE POCHE / LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS (BALLET) / PARTITION DE POCHE / RÉDUCTION POUR PIANO À QUATRE MAINS PAR L’AUTEUR / [°] / TROIS PIÈCES POUR QUATUOR À CORDES / PARTITION DE POCHE / [°] / POUR CHANT ET PIANO:°° / DEUX POÉSIES DE BALMONT / ÉDITION NOUVELLE AVEC TEXTE RUSSE, FRANÇAIS, ANGLAIS ET ALLEMAND / TROIS POÉSIES DE LA LYRIQUE JAPONAISE / ÉDITION NOUVELLE AVEC TEXTE RUSSE, FRANÇAIS ET ANGLAIS / TROIS PETITES CHANSONS (SOUVENIR DE MON ENFANCE) / ÉDITION NOUVELLE AVEC TEXTE RUSSE ET FRANÇAIS, RUSSE ET ANGLAIS / [°°°] / ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE< [° dividing (horizontal) 4 cm line; °° line centre; °°° dividing (horizontal) 5,7 cm line].
18-2  IGOR STRAWINSKY/ MARCHE CHINOISE / TIRÉE DU CONTE LYRIQUE / ,,ROSSIGNOL'' / TRANSCRIPTION POUR PIANO / PAR THÉODORE SZÁNTÓ / [vignette] / PROPRIÉTÉ DE L'ÉDITEUR POUR TOUS PAYS / TOUS DROITS D'EXÉCUTION RÉSERVÉS / ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE / (RUSSISCHER MUSIKVERLAG G. M. B. H.* / FONDÉE PAR S. ET N. KOUSSEWITZKY / BERLIN, MOSCOU, LEIPZIG, NEW YORK, LONDRES, BRUXELLES, BARCELONA, MADRID, / PARIS / 22, RUE D'ANJOU, 22 / S. A. DES GRANDES ÉDITIONS MUSICALES // (Edition [library binding] 26.6 x 33.2 (2° [4°]); 11  pages + 1 page front matter [title page in ornamental feather frame] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements in ornamental feather frame >LES ŒUVRES / D'IGOR STRAWINSKY<** production date >No. 3.<; title head >Marche chinoise / tirée du conte lyrique / „Rossignol“; authors specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 2 above title head centre >Igor Strawinsky< below title head flush right >Transcription par Théodore Szántó<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H. Berlin. / (Edition Russe de Musique) / Copyright 1922 by Russischer Musikverlag G. m. b. H. Berlin.< flush right >Propriété de l'éditeur pour tous pays<; plate number >R. M. V. 346<; production indication p. 11 flush right as end mark >Stich und Druck von C. G. Röder G. m. b. H., Leipzig.< advertisements below frame centre >C. G. Röder G. m. b. H., Leipzig. 130126.<) // 
* G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the G. and M.
** Compositions are advertised >MAVRA. Opéra en 1 acte — Réduction pour chant et piano par l'auteur / (avec textes russe, français, anglais et allemand) / Ouverture pour piano solo — Air de la mère pour chant et piano / PÉTROUCHKA (Ballet) / Partition de poche — Réduction pour piano à quatre mains par l'auteur / TROIS MOUVEMENTS DE PÉTROUCHKA; Transcription pour piano solo par l'auteur / Suite de Pétrouchka, Transcription pour piano solo par TH. SZÁNTÓ / PULCINELLA (Ballet) / SUITE DE PULCINELLA pour petit orchestre — Partition de poche / rossignol(Conte lyrique) / Réduction pour chant et piano par l'auteur / (textes russes et français) / Introduction, chant du pêcheur et Air du Rossignol pour chant et piano /tiré du I-er acte) / MARCHE CHINOISE, Transcription pour piano solo par TH. SZÁNTÓ / CHANT DU ROSSIGNOL (Poème symphonique) — Partition de poche / Réduction pour piano à deux mains par J. LARMANJAT / LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS, (Ballet) / Partition de poche — Réduction pour piano à quatre mains par l'auteur / SYMPHONIES D'INSTRUMENTS À VENT / Réduction pour piano solo par A. LOURIÉ / TROIS PIÈCES pour Quatuor à cordes / Partition de poche — Parties / OCTUOR pour instruments à vent / Partition de poche — Parties / Réduction pour piano à deux mains par A. LOURIÉ / SUITE pour Violon et piano d'après les thèmes, fragments et morceaux de / G. B. PERGOLESI / CONCERTO pour piano et orchestre d’harmonie / Réduction pour deux pianos à quatre mains par l'auteur / SÉRÉNADE en La pour piano solo / SONATE pour piano solo / SUR DEUX POÉSIES DE BALMONT / Édition nouvelle avec textes russes, français, anglais et allemand / SUR TROIS POÉSIES DE LA LYRIQUE JAPONAISE / Édition nouvelle avec textes russe, français et anglais / TROIS PETITES CHANSONS (Souvenir de mon enfance) / Édition nouvelle avac textes russe-francais° et russe-anglais [° = original spelling].
18-3Td Igor Strawinsky / Die Nachtigall / (ROSSIGNOL)* / [vignette] / Text-Buch / [°] / Russischer Musikverlag G. m. b. H. // IGOR STRAWINSKY / DIE NACHTIGALL / (ROSSIGNOL)* / Lyrisches Märchen in drei Acten / von / I. STRAWINSKY und S. MITUSOFF / nach / ANDERSEN / Deutsche Übersetzung / von / A. ELUKHEN und B. FEIWEL / Alle Aufführungsrechte vorbehalten / Eigentum des Verlages für alle Länder / RUSSISCHER [°°] MUSIKVERLAG / G. m. [°°] b. H. / Gegründet von S. und N. Kussewitzky / BERLIN — LEIPZIG / LONDON, MOSKAU, NEW-YORK, PARIS, BRÜSSEL, BARCELONA, MADRID / R. M. V. 405 // (Libretto German octavo format; 20 pages + 4 cover pages [front cover title in ornamental feather frame, 3 empty pages] + 4 pages front matter [title page, empty page, index of roles >Personen< German, empty page] without back matter; plate number [only title page] >R. M. V. 405<; production indication as ende mark p. 20 centre >„Der Reichsbote“ G. m. b. H., Berlin SW 11.<) // (1923)
° Dividing horizontal line centrally thickening
°° Publisher’s emblem spanning more than two lines sitting women playing cimbalom.
* Original mistake in the title.
18-4 IGOR STRAWINSKY / ROSSIGNOL / [°] / CHANT ET PIANO / ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE / MOSCOU, BERLIN, LEIPZIG, PARIS, LONDRES, BRUXELLES, / MADRID, BARCELONA, NEW-YORK. // IGOR STRAWINSKY / ROSSIGNOL / CONTE LYRIQUE / EN / TROIS ACTES / DE / I. STRAWINSKY ET S. MITOUSOFF / D'APRÈS / ANDERSEN / TRADUCTION FRANÇAISE DE / M. D. CALVOCORESSI / [°°] / RÉDUCTION POUR CHANT ET PIANO / PAR L'AUTEUR / TOUS DROITS D'EXÉCUTION RÉSERVÉS. / EDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE [vignette] RUSSISCHER MUSIKVERLAG G. M.B. H.* / (FONDÉE PAR S. ET N. KOUSSEWITZKY.) / MOSCOU. BERLIN . LEIPZIG. PARIS. LONDRES. / BRUXELLES. MADRID. BARCELONA. NEW-YORK. // (Vocal score with chant 26.3 x 32.8 (2° [4°] ); 93  pages + 4 cover pages black on light brown-grey [front cover title in ornamental feather frame, 3 empty pages] + 2 pages front matter [title page in ornamental feather frame with vignette 0,9 x 1 publisher’s emblem sitting woman playing cymbalom, empty page] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; sung text Russian-French; title head >СОЛОВЕЙ. [#] LE ROSSIGNOL.<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 3 below legal reservation flush right centred >Игоъ Стравинскiй. / Igor Strawinsky.<; legal reservations without Copyright 1st page of the score between movement title >ВСТУПЛЕНІЕ. [#] INTRODUCTION.< and author specified flush left >Tous droits d'exécution réservés.< below type area flush left >Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H., Berlin. Moskau. St. Petersburg.< flush right >Eigentum des Verlags für alle Länder.<; plate number >R.M.V. 241<; end of score dated p. 93 >Clarens 1914.<; production indication p. 93 flush right as end mark >Stich und Druck von C. G. Röder G.m.b.H. Leipzig; // [1923***]
° Dividing horizontal line of 2.4 cm.
°° Dividing horizontal line of 1.8 cm.
* G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the underlined G. and M.
** 1914 according to Catalogue >Preußische Staatsbibliothek Berlin<; from the title pages, it can be seen that it is a subsequent edition and not the first edition of the piano reduction, and it can be placed considerably later chronologically
18-5 IGOR STRAWINSKY / ROSSIGNOL / [°] / PARTITION D'ORCHESTRE / EDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE / MOSCOU, BERLIN, LEIPZIG, PARIS, LONDRES, BRUXELLES, / MADRID, BARCELONA, NEW-YORK. [*] // IGOR STRAWINSKY / ROSSIGNOL / CONTE LYRIQUE / EN / TROIS ACTES / DE / I. STRAWINSKY ET S. MITOUSOFF / D'APRÈS / ANDERSEN / TRADUCTION FRANÇAISE DE / M. D. CALVOCORESSI / PARTITION D'ORCHESTRE / [°°] / TOUS DROITS D'EXÉCUTION RÈSERVÈS. / Edition russe de musique[vignette] Russischer MUSIKVERLAG G. M.B. H.** / (FONDÉE PAR S. ET N. KOUSSEWITZKY.) / MOSCOU. BERLIN . LEIPZIG. PARIS. LONDRES. / BRUXELLES. MADRID. BARCELONA. NEW-YORK. [*] // (Full score [library binding] 26.5 x 33 (2° [4°] ); sung text Russian-French-German; 119  pages + 4 cover pages black on light grey [front cover title black on light grey in ornamental feather frame, 3 empty pages] + 2 pages front matter [title page in ornamental feather frame with publisher’s emblem 1 x 1.2 sitting woman playing cymbalom, legend >NOMENCLATURE DES INSTRUMENTS< Italian + index of rols >ПЂНЯЕ | PERSONNAGES: | PERSONEN:< Russian-French-German] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >СОЛОВЕЙ. / ДЂЙСТВIЕ ПЕРВОЕ. / ВСТУПЛЕНIЕ. / LE ROSSIGNOL. | DIE NACHTIGALL. / PREMIÈRE ACTE. | ERSTER AKT. / INTRODUCTION. | EINLEITUNG.; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 3 below title head flush right centred >Игоъ Стравинскiй. / Igor Strawinsky.<; fictitious editor specified 1st page of the score next to 2nd line title head flush left >Edited by F. M. Schneider<; legal reservations 1st page of the score above type area below fictitious editor specified between 2nd and 3rd line title head flush left >Tous droits d’exécution reserves.< below type area flush left >Russischer Musikverlag, G.m.b.H., Berlin, Leipzig. / Edition Russe de Musique / Copyright 1923 by Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H., Berlin.< flush right >Propriété de l'Éditeur pour tous pays.<; plate number >R. M. V. 158<; without end mark) (1923)
° Dividing horizontal line of 2.4 cm.
°° Dividing horizontal line of 1.8 cm.
* There is a blue stamp >Unverkäufliches / Exemplar< [>Unsaleable copy<] above the decorative feather frame of the outer and inner title in the Berlin copy >DMS 207741< centrally formatted and in the centre, and on p. 3 between the title heading and the page number centred.
** G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the underlined G. and M.
The copy in Strawinsky’s estate is dated Biarritz 12 thSeptember 1923. He used it as a copy for making his corrections and contains the annotation >Revised score by / composer / from which new score is / engraved / April 1962 / aso in 1 th+ 2 ndproofe)<.
18-6 IGOR STRAWINSKY / LE / ROSSIGNOL / INTRODUCTION, / CHANT DU PÊCHEUR ET AIR DU ROSSIGNOL / DU I erACTE / RÉDUCTION POUR CHANT ET PIANO / PAR L'AUTEUR / TOUS DROITS D'EXÉCUTION RÉSERVÉS. / EDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE [vignette] Russischer MUSIKVERLAG G. M.B. H.* / (FONDÉE PAR S. ET N. KOUSSEWITZKY.) / MOSCOU. BERLIN. LEIPZIG. LONDRES. / BRUXELLES. MADRID. BARCELONA. NEW-YORK. / PARIS / 22. rue ‘d** Anjou 22 / S. A. DES GRANDES EDITION MUSICALES // (Edition [library binding] 26.5 x 33.5 (2° [4°]); sung text Russian-French-German 17  pages + 2 pages front matter [title page without feather frame black on creme-white*** with publisher’s emblem 1 x 1,2 sitting woman playing cymbalom, empty page] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements >LES ŒUVRES d’IGOR STRAWINSKY<**** production date >N o 2.<]; title head >ВСТУПЛЕНIЕ, [#] Introduction, / ПЂСНЯ РЫБАКА И АРIЯ [#] Chant du Pêcheur et Air du / СОЛОВЬЯ. [#] Rossignol.<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 3 below title head flush right centred >Игоъ Стравинскiй. / Igor Strawinsky. < ; fictitious editor specified 1st page of the score next to and above author specified flush left >Edited and revised by Albert Spalding, New-York.<; translator specified 1st page of the score above type area flush left >Traduction française de M. P. Calvocoressi.< legal reservations 1st page of the score next to 3. line title head flush left centred italic > Tous droits d’exécution / réservés .< below type area flush left >Copyright 1924 by Russischer Musikverlag G. m. b. H., Berlin (Edition Russe de Musique). / Russischer Musikverlag G. m. b. H., Berlin.< flush right >Eigentum des Verlags für alle Länder.<; plate number >R. M. V. 241 241 a [S. 17: R. M. V. 241 a]; without end mark) // (1924)
* G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the underlined G. and M.
** Misprint original
*** Cream beige; only the 1st and last pages of the edition.
**** Compositions are advertised laid out >PÉTROUCHKA (BALLET) / PARTITION DE POCHE / RÉDUCTION POUR PIANO À QUATRE MAINS PAR L’AUTEUR / TROIS MOUVEMENTS DE PÉTROUCHKA / TRANSCRIPTION POUR PIANO SOLO PAR L’AUTEUR / ROSSIGNOL (CONTE LYRIQUE) / RÉDUCTION POUR CHANT ET PIANO PAR L’AUTEUR / [#] (textes russe et français) / INTRODUCTION, CHANT DU PÊCHEUR et AIR DU ROSSIGNOL / [#] tirés du I eracte). / MARCHE CHINOISE, TRANSCRIPTION POUR PIANO SOLO / [#] PAR THÉODORE SZANTO° / CHANT DU ROSSIGNOL (POÈME SYMPHONIQUE) / PARTITION DE POCHE / RÉDUCTION POUR PIANO A DEUX MAINS PAR J. LARMANJAT / LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPTS (BALLET) / PARTITION DE POCHE / RÉDUCTION POUR PIANO A QUATRE MAINS PAR L’AUTEUR / TROIS PIÈCES POUR QUATUOR A CORDES / PARTIES / PARTITION DE POCHE / OCTUOR POUR INSTRUMENTS A° VENT / PARTITION DE POCHE / RÉDUCTION POUR PIANO A DEUX MAINS PAR A. LOURIÉ / CONCERTO pour Piano et Orchestre d’Harmonie°° / RÉDUCTION POUR DEUX PIANOS A 4 MAINS PAR L’AUTEUR / MAVRA OPÉRA EN 1 ACTE / RÉDUCTION POUR CHANT ET PIANO PAR L’AUTEUR / (avec textes russe, français, anglais et allemand) / sur DEUX POÉSIES DE BALMONT / ÉDITION NOUVELLE avec textes russe, français, anglais et allemand. / sur TROIS POÉSIES DE LA LYRIQUE JAPONAISE / ÉDITION NOUVELLE avec textes russe, français et anglais. / TROIS PETITES CHANSONS (Souvenir de mon enfance) / ÉDITION NOUVELLE avec textes russe et français, russe et anglais.< [° original spelling; °° ].
18-7 IGOR STRAWINSKY / AIRS DU ROSSIGNOL / et / MARCHE CHINOISE / Transcription* / pour violon et piano / par l'Auteur et S. Dushkin / ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE // IGOR STRAWINSKY / AIRS DU ROSSIGNOL / et / MARCHE CHINOISE / pour violon et piano / Prix RM. 4.= / Frs. 4.= [**] / ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE // IGOR STRAWINSKY / AIRS DU ROSSIGNOL / et / MARCHE CHINOISE / pour violon et piano / par l'Auteur et S. Dushkin / ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE / Russischer MUSIKVERLAG (G.M.B.H.***) / FONDÉE PAR S. ET N. KOUSSEVITZKY / BERLIN · LEIPZIG · PARIS · MOSCOU · LONDRES · NEW YORK ·BUENOS AIRES / [°] / S. I. M. A. G. - Asnières-Paris / 2 et 4, Avenue de la Marne – XXXIV // (Edition violin and piano [library binding] 26.6 x 33.8 (2° [4°]); 15  pages + 4 cover pages thicker paper red on light orange [front cover title, 3 empty pages] + 1 page front matter [title page] + 1 page back matter [empty page] + 6  pages violin part sewn [empty page, 1st page of the score paginated p. 2 with score in identical text and layout + name of the instrument above type area centre >Violon< p. 3 without end mark, p. 4 with score in identical text and layout + name of the instrument >Violon<, p. 6 without end mark, 2 pages back matter = empty pages]; title head [p. 2:] >AIRS DU ROSSIGNOL< [p. 8:] >MARCHE CHINOISE<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 2, p. 8 below title head flush right >IGOR STRAWINSKY< flush left centred >Transcription pour Violon et Piano / par l'Auteur et S. Dushkin / 1932<; legal reservation pp. 2 + 8 below type area flush left centred >Propriété de l'Editeur pour tous pays. / Edition Russe de Musique / Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H. Berlin< flush right centred >Copyright 1934 by Russischer Musikverlag, G.m.b.H. Berlin. / Tous droits d'exécution, de reproduction et / d'arrangements réservés pour tous pays.<; plate numbers >R. M. V. 583< [Airs: score pp. 2-7, part pp. 2-3], >R. M. V. 584< [Marche: schore pp. 8-15, part pp. 4-6]; production indications p. 15 below type area flush left >S. I. M. A. G. - Asnières-Paris.< pp. 7 + 15 flush right as end mark >GRANDJEAN GRAV<) // (1934)
° Dividing horizontal line of 1.8 cm.
* Only front cover title, missing title page front matter.
** The London copy, which was bought on 15st July 1978, has a blue stamp > INCREASED PRICE / 5/- / BOOSEY & HAWKES LTD. <. at this place.
*** G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the G. and M.
Strawinsky’s copy of his estate is rebound (score) and sewn (violin part) and on the front cover page below >IGOR STRAWINSKY< flush right with >IStr nov/°34< [° slash original] signed and dated. The copy contains corrections.
18-8 No. 11518 / CHANT DU ROSSIGNOL / From “ROSSIGNOL” / [#*] For / [#*] PIANO SOLO / [#*] by / [#*] IGOR STRAVINSKY / Price 50c net / EDWARD B. MARKS MUSIC COPRPORATION / RCA Building · Radio City / NEW YORK / PRINTED IN U. S. A. // (Edition [library binding] 23.3 x 30.4 (4° [4°] ); 7  pages + 4 cover pages [ornamental front cover page in wine-red with two ornamental text frames decorated with bows on the left of the page 18 x 9,5 (16) + 10 (11) x 3 (3,9), gold on a wine-red background 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >FAMOUS COMPOSITIONS FOR PIANO SOLO / By / IGOR STRAVINSKY<**] without front matter + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements >KALEIDOSCOPE [vignette***] EDITION / A NEW SERIES OF MUSIC FOR PIANO BY CONTEMPORARY COMPOSERS / PART ONE<**** without production date]; title head >CHANT DU ROSSIGNOL / From “ROSSIGNOL”; authors specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 3 below title head flush right >IGOR STRAVINSKY< flush left italic > Arranged by / FREDERICK BLOCK <; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area centre >Copyright MCMXLI by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation. / [inside left] All Rights Reserved.<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area below 1. line legal reservation inside right >Printed in U. S. A.<; plate number >11518-5<; without end mark) // (1941)
* On the left side of the page, the publisher’s emblem spanning four to five lines 1.9 x 3.1 (in a semicircular arch in a four-line system running in left and out flush right:] >KALEIDOSCOPE< / [vignette 1.4 x 2.1 Pianist at a grand piano with a raised lid] / [a standard sentence in a five-line system running in left and out flush right:] >EDITION<.
** Advertised are 17 pieces with edition numbers, and prices behind fill character (dotted line) >11507 CHEZ PETROUSHKA from “Petrouska” $ .60 / 11508 DANSE DE LA FOIRE from “Petroushka” .60 / 10619 DANSE RUSSE from “Petroushka” .60 / 11510 DANSE DES ADOLESCENTS from “Sacre du Printemps” .50 / 11509 Ronde Pritaniere“Sacre du Printemps” .50 / 11506 Tourneys of the rival TRIBES“Sacre du Printemps” .50 / 11504 DEVILS DANCE from “Tale of the Soldier” (Histoire du Soldat) .50 / 11516 BERCEUSE AND FINALE from “Firebird” (Oiseau de Feu) .50 / 11517 DANSE INFERNALE from “Firebird” .75 / 11534 RONDE DES PRINCESSES from “Firebird” .60 / 11503 SCHERZO from “Firebird” .50 / 11514 SUPPLICATION from “Firebird” .60 / 11502 MARCHE CHINOISE from “Chant du Rossignol” .75 / 11518 CHANT DU ROSSIGNOL from “Rossignol” .50 / 11515 PASTORALE .50 / 11505 NAPOLITANA from “Suite of 5 Pieces” .50 / 10342 ETUDE Op. 7, No. 4 (F# Major) .60<.
*** A pianist at a grand piano with the lid raised.
**** Compositions are advertised from >I. Albeniz< to >E. Lecuona<, Strawinsky not mentioned.
18-9 Alb >CHANT DU ROSSIGNOL / From “ROSSIGNOL“< // ([in:] CONTEMPORARY MASTERPIECES · ALBUM No. 9 / ALBUM OF / IGOR STRAVINSKY / MASTERPIECES / [Porträt] / SELECTED COMPOSITIONS for PIANO SOLO / PRICE $1.00 NET / MADE / IN U.S.A. / EDWARD B. MARKS MUSIC CORPORATION · RCA BLDG. · RADIO CITY · NEW YORK; 87  pages + 4 cover pages black light- orange on creme [front cover title with portrait photo Strawinsky facing left, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >ALBUMS OF CONTEMPORARY MASTERPIECES<* without production date] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements >KALEIDOSCOPE EDITION / A NEW SERIES FOR PIANO BY CONTEMPORARY COMPOSERS<** without production date) // Album (5 pp. [pp. 36-40], arranger specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 36 below title head flush left centred italic > Arranged by / Frederick Block <; author specified below arranger specified flush right >IGOR STRAVINSKY<; legal reservation with production indication 1st page of the score below type area centre >Copyright MCMXLI by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation. / All Rights reserved. [#] Printed in U. S. A.<; plate number >11518-5<; without end marks) // 1941
* 6 Albums are advertised (Albeniz, Debussy, Dohnányi, Rachmaninoff, Ravel, Scriabine).
** Compositions are advertised under the heading >PART ONE< by Albeniz, Borodin, Bortkiewitz, Chabrier, Chavarri, Debussy, Dohnanyi, Dukas, Enescu, de Falla, Faure, Granados. Gliere, Holmes, Ippolitow-Iwanow, Juon, Lareglia, Lecuosa.
18-10 igor strawinsky / le rossignol / chant et piano / édition russe de musique · boosey & hawkes // Igor Strawinsky / Le Rossignol / Conte lyrique en Trois Actes / de / I. Strawinsky et S. Mitousoff / d'aprés ° Andersen / Traduction francais° de / M. D. Calvocoressi / Réduction pour chant et piano par l'auteur / Edition Russe de Musique (S. & N. Koussewitzky) · Boosey & Hawkes / London · New York · Toronto · Sydney · Capetown · Buenos Aires · Paris · Bonn // (Vocal score with chant sewn 23.4 x 30.9 (2° [4°]); sung text Russian-French; 93  pages + 4 cover pages tomato red on green-grey [front cover title, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s >Édition Russe de Musique / (S. et N. Koussewitzky) / Boosey & Hawkes< advertisements > Igor Strawinsky <* production date >No. 453] + 2 pages front matter [title page, page with legal reservations centre centred >Copyright by Édition Russe de Musique (RUSSISCHER Musikverlag) / for all countries / Copyright by arrangement, Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York, U.S.A. < / [#] / justified text italic > All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical repro- / duction in any form whatsoever (including film), translation of the libretto, / of the complete work or parts thereof are strictly reserved <] + 3 pages back matter [page with publisher’s >Édition A. Gutheil / (S. et N. Koussewitzky) / Boosey & Hawkes< advertisements** > Serge Rachmaninoff < production date >No. 461<, page with publisher’s >Édition A. Gutheil / (S. et N. Koussewitzky) / Boosey & Hawkes< advertisements** > Serge Rachmaninoff < production date >No. 527< [#] >3.49<, page with publisher’s >Édition A. Gutheil / (S. et N. Koussewitzky) / Boosey & Hawkes< advertisements** > Serge Prokofieff < production date >454<]; title head СОЛОВЬЯ. [#]LE ROSSIGNOL.<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated page 3 below movement title >ВСТУПЛЕНIЕ. [#]INTRODUCTION. < flush right centred >Игоъ Стравинскiй. / Igor Strawinsky .< ; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright by Édition Russe de Musique (RUSSISCHER Musikverlag) for all countries. / Printed by arrangement, Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., New York, U.S.A.< flush right >All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area below legal reservation flush right >Printed in England.<; plate number: B. & H. 17187; end of score dated p. 93 >Clarens 1914 .<; end number pp. 93 flush left >5. 52. E<) // (1952)
° Original spelling.
* In French, compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers and without price information editionsgeordnete aufführungspraktische Reihenfolge with Frenchen Titeln without Editionsnummern und without Preise zweispaltig. Angezeigt werden > Piano seul° / Trois Mouvements de Pétrouchka / Suite de Pétrouchka ( Th. Szántó ) / Marche chinoise de “ Rossignol ” / Sonate pour piano* / Ouverture de “ Mavra ” / Serenade en la / Symphonie*°° pour°° instruments à vent / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Partitions pour piano°* / Le Chant du Rossignol / Apollon Musagète / Le Baiser de la Fée / Orpheus / Piano à quatre mains° / Le* Sacre du Printemps / Pétrouchka / Deux Pianos à quatre mains° / Concerto pour piano* / Capriccio pour piano* et orchestre / Chant et piano°* / Deux Poésies de Balmont / Trois Poésies de la lyrique japonaise / Trois petites chansons / Chanson de Paracha de “ Mavra ” / Introduction, chant du pêcheur, air du rossignol / Choeur°* / Ave Maria (a cappella) / Credo (a cappella) / Pater noster (a cappella) // Partitions pour chant et piano* / Rossignol. Conte lyrique en 3 actes / Mavra. Opéra bouffe en 1 acte / Œdipus Rex. Opéra-oratorio en 1 acte* / Symphonie de Psaumes / Perséphone / Violon et Piano°* / Suite d’après Pergolesi / Duo Concertant / Airs du Rossignol / Danse Russe / Divertimento / Suite Italienne / Chanson Russe / Violoncelle et Piano°* / Suite Italienne ( Piatigorsky ) / Musique de Chambre° / Trois pièces pour quatuor à cordes / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Partitions de poche° / Suite de Pulcinella / Symphonies pour°° instruments à vent / Concerto pour piano* / Chant du Rossignol / Pétrouchka. Ballet / Sacre* du Printemps / Le Baiser de la Fée / Apollon Musagète / Œdipus Rex* / Perséphone / Capriccio* / Divertimento / Quatre Études pour orchestre / Symphonie de Psaumes / Trois pièces pour quatuor à cordes / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Concerto en ré pour orchestre à cordes< [* different spelling original; ° centre centred; °° original spelling]. The following places of printing are listed: London-New York-Sydney-Toronto-Cape Town-Paris-Buenos Aires<.
** The following places of printing are listed: London-New York-Sydney-Toronto-Capetown-Buenos Aires-Paris.
18-12 [ intricate Strawinsky’s monogram] I S [gold tooling 2.0 x 4.0] // Igor Stravinsky / Le Rossignol / The Nightingale [#] Die Nachtigall / Conte lyrique en trois actes / de / I. Stravinsky et S. Mitousoff / d'après Andersen / Traduction française de M. D. Calvocoressi / English translation by Robert Craft / Deutsche Abovetragung von A. Elukhen und B. Feiwel / HPS 738 / Édition Russe de Musique (S. & N. Koussewitzky) · Boosey & Hawkes // (Pocket score bound 1.7 x 18.3 x 26.7 1.7 x 19 x 27.3 ([Lex. 8°]); texts Russian-French-German-English; 159  pages + 4 pages imitation leather dark blue with text on spine gold tooling >STRAVINSKY LE ROSSIGNOL< [front cover title, 3 empty pages] + 4 pages front matter with binding sides [title page, page with legal reservations centre centred >Copyright 1923 by Édition Russe de Musique (Russischer Musikverlag) / Copyright assigned 1947 to Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. for all countries / English translation © 1956 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / German translation © 1961 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / Revised version © 1962 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc.< centre centred italic > All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical reproduction in any form whatsoever / (including film), translation of the libretto, of the complete work or parts thereof are strictly reserved. <; index of rols French-English-German, legend >Orchestra< Italian + duration data [45’] French] + 1 page back matter with binding sides [empty page]; title head >LE ROSSIGNOL / THE NIGHTINGALE [#] DIE NACHTIGALL / СОЛОВЕЙ<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below movement title >ВСТУПЛЕНIЕ. [#] INTRODUCTION< flush right >IGOR STRAVINSKY<; legal reservations >Copyright 1923 by Édition Russe de Musique (RUSSISCHER Musikverlag) / Copyright assigned 1947 to Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. for all countries / English translation © 1956 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / German translation © 1961 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / Revised version © 1962 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc.< flush right >All rights reserved<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area inside right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 18936<; without end mark) // (1962)
18-14 Igor Stravinsky / Le Rossignol* / Boosey & Hawkes // Igor Stravinsky / Le Rossignol / The Nightingale [#] Die Nachtigall / Conte lyrique en trois actes / de / I. Stravinsky et S. Mitousoff / d'après Andersen / Traduction française de M. D. Calvocoressi / English translation by Robert Craft / Deutsche Abovetragung von A. Elukhen und B. Feiwel / HPS 738 / Édition Russe de Musique (S. & N. Koussewitzky) ·Boosey & Hawkes // (Pocket score [library binding] 17.7 x 26 ([Lex. 8°]); text Russian-French-English-German; 159  pages + 4 cover pages black-white on beige + 4 pages front matter [title page, page with legal reservations partly in italics >Copyright 1923 by Édition Russe de Musique (RUSSISCHER Musikverlag) / Copyright assigned 1947 to Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. for all countries / English translation © 1956 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / German translation © 1961 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / Revised version © 1962 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical reproduction in any form whatsoever / (including film), translation of the libretto, of the complete work or parts thereof are strictly reserved. <; index of rols French-English-German, legend Italian + duration data [45’] French] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >[#] Le Rossignol [#] / The Nightingale [#] Die Nachtigall / [#] СОЛОВЕЙ [#] author specified 1st page of the score unpaginated [p. 1] next to movement title >ВСТУПЛЕНIЕ. [#] INTRODUCTION < flush right >IGOR STRAVINSKY<; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright 1923 by Édition Russe de Musique (RUSSISCHER Musikverlag) / Copyright assigned 1947 to Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. for all countries / English translation © 1956 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / German translation © 1961 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. / Revised version © 1962 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc.< flush right >All rights reserved<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area centre inside right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 18936<; without end mark) // (1962)
* Printed in white.
18-14 L 1962 Libretto ; German; Boosey & Hawkes London; HPS 738.
18-15 Alb 1968 Песня соловья из оперы „Соловей“; Publisher Musyka Moskau; in: ИЗБРАННЫЕ ВОКАЛЬНЫЕ СОЧИНЕНИю для голоса с фортепиано; 54 pp. 27.7 x 28.8 (4° [Lex. 8°]); Pl.-Nr. 5823; pp. 31-34
K Catalog: Annotated Catalog of Works and Work Editions of Igor Strawinsky till 1971, revised version 2014 and ongoing, by Helmut Kirchmeyer.
© Helmut Kirchmeyer. All rights reserved.
https://kcatalog.org and https://kcatalog.net